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Where are the airtrainer fuel tanks located?
Forward of the main spar and between ribs 2 to 7 in each wing
Total fuel capacity of airtrainer, and total usable capacity.
- Total capacity: 207L (103.5L per tank)
- Usable capacity: 198L (99L per tank)
Why is the unusable fuel in each tank? and how much?
The fuel tank outlets are raised off the bottom of the fuel tank.
4.5L per tank
What type of fuel is used in the airtrainer?
What limits inverted flight time?
Capacity of collector tank
Fuel is leaking from bottom of airtrainer below pilots seat (LHS). What is it?
Electric fuel pump draining.
What is used to transform AC power from a given voltage into AC power at a different voltage?
What device is remotely used to control large currents in circuits?
When does low voltage light come on in the airtrainer?
When voltage has reduced below 25 VDC
What item do we use to discharge static electricity, and where is it located?
Static discharge wicks.
Located on training edge of control surfaces, wing tips and vertical stabilizers. (i.e. extremities).
What are three electric supply devices that may be available following failure of primary power?
- RAT Ram Air Turbines
- APU Auxiliary Power Unit
What is the main difference between a fuse and a circuit breaker?
A fuse melts when the circuit current exceeds rated capacity, which must be replaced after it breaks.
A circuit breaker trips when predermined current exceeded, but may be reset.
What type of circuit breaker is used on the airtrainer
Thermal overload type
What is the function of a TRU (transformer rectifier unit)
Converts an AC input of one voltage into a DC output of a different voltage.
It is therefore a combination of a static transformer and a rectifier.
What is the maximum output of the alternator on the airtrainer?
28 VDC at 70 amps
What is the battery rating on the airtrainer?
24 VDC at 13.6 amps
How long does battery power last after alternator faillure?
30 minutes under normal operation
What type of battery does the airtrainer have?
Describe the operation of CSU.
Flyweights in the CSU react to changes in centrifugal force. As a result, the drive shaft changes the position of the pilot valve, which allows oil in and out of the prop shaft, which changes the position of the blade and keeps a constant RPM
What type of propellor installation does the airtrainer have?
(Name the alternate installation found in some other aircraft.)
Name the five forces that act on a propeller
- CTM (Centrifugal twisting moment)
- ATM (Aerodynamic twisting moment)
What devices are used in cable runs to adjust cable tension?
What devices are used to change direction of motion on cable or control rod runs?
Bellcranks, Quadrants and Sectors
What are the four mediums used to transmit pilot inputs to control surfaces?
- Fly by wire
At 50% flaps, what degree of movement?
- (full down 30 degrees)
- (full up 0 degrees)
Describe the operation of flaps
Micro switches allow an electric flap motor to turn the flap torque tube.
Describe the airtrainer undercarriage
Fixed tricycle landing gear
Main gear consist of two tapered spring steel cantilever legs bolted to a secondary structure in wing between ribs #2 and #4.
Nose gear consists of a hydraulic strut and outer tube, with a single sided fork assemply supporting the nosewheel. The leg is attached to the firewall and pivots about two teflon bearings. Steering is achieved by direct linkage to the LHS rudder pedals.
Advantage of standard landing gear system
Tail down attitude allows the pilot to use aerodynamic drag to assist braking during the landing run
State the (4) disadvantages of standard landing gear system
- 1. Poor forward vision during taxi
- 2. Because the main wheels are ahead of the CG, it is prone to ground looping.
- 3. Placing main wheels only small distance ahead of CH can increase the risk of nose-over under harsh braking.
- 4. Sloping floor makes loading heavy objects difficult.
State the advantages (7) advantages of tricycle landing gear system.
- 1. Positively stable during ground roll
- 2. Good ahead lookout
- 3. Good ground control with nosewheel steering.
- 4. No tendency to nose-over under hard braking.
- 5. Jet efflux is clear of ground
- 6. Tail brake-chutes easily deployed.
- 7. Horizontal floor aids loading
State the disadvantages (4) of tricycle landing gear system
- 1. Longer undercarriage required to provide same clearance between propellers and ground.
- 2. Nosewheel must be stronger and cushioned, which adds to weight.
- 3. Generally less aerodynamic braking during landing roll.
- 4. Often requires tail bumper to minimize damage in case of over-rotation on take-off or landing.
What is the design philosophy of the airtrainer and describe it.
(Name and describe the other philosophy)
Safe Life - aims to ensure that there will be no significant structural cracking during the specified life of an aircraft.
(Damage Tolerent - fail safe approach requires that structures maintain adequate strength in service until planned inspection reveals an unacceptable defect)
Describe the ventilation and air-heating systems in the airtrainer.
Ventilation: Ram air scoop on right side of the lower engine cowl directs air to slide valve on lower right side of firewall. Slide valve is controlled by push/pull knob located on the right side of centre console in the coockpit. From firewall cool air is ducted to the cold air vents/punkah louvers.
Heating System: Ram air scoop located on the right side of the engine. Air is ducted to muffler shroud where air is heated prior to being ducted to a slide valve on lower left side of firewall. Slide is controlled by push/pull knob on left side of the centre console of the cockpit. From firewall hot air is ducted to the mixing and distribution manifold.
What type of de-icing system does airtrainer have?
A heating element integral with the pressure head acts as an anti-icing device for the airtrainer pitot/static system. Pitot heater is controlled by switch on LHS electrical switch panel.
Pitot heat should be selected any time visible moisture is present.
What type of fire extinguisher does the airtrainer have, and where is it located?
1.5kg dry powder type located behind and between seats of airtrainer.
What happens if CoG too far forward?
- 1. Necessitates a large stick force per G, making the aircraft difficult to manoeuvre and heavy to handle.
- 2. Elevator authority may be insufficient for the round out (i.e. flaring the aircraft on landing)
- 3. Requires excessive use of nose-up trim to maintain straight and level flight, resulting in increased drag and a consequent decrease in range and endurance.
What happens if CoG is too far aft?
1. THe aircraft becomes less stable and may become unstable, possibly leading to loss of control.
2. In some aircraft the increased load on the tailplane may cause flutter.
3. Requires excessive use of the nose-down trim to maintain straight and level flight, resulting in increased drag and a consequent decrease in range and endurance.
What are the effects on an aircraft's performance that are due to increasing AUW (all up weight)
- 1. Inrease the stalling speed, thereby increasing the take-off and landing runs.
- 2. increase the aircraft's inertia, thereby reducing acceleration on take-off and deacceleration on landing.
- 3. reduces rate of climb
- 4. lower the absolute ceiling and optimum range altitude.
- 5. Reduce the range and endurance
- 6. Reduces manoeuvrability and asymmetric performance.
- 7. Increase wear and tear on brakes and tyres.
- 8. Operation at weights in excess of the max AUW will reduce the saftey factor thereby increasing the risk of structural failure in manoeuvre or when flying in turbulent conditions.
Describe what must be done when towing an aircraft.
Upper blade of propeller in vertical position
An individual is in the cockpit
What is the saftey precaution when moving the aircraft in confined spaces?
an individual should be positioned along side each wing top to ensure adequate obstacle clearance.
What are the aircraft towing limits?
Speed limit 8kmph (5mph) and towing angle of 15 degrees to left or right should not be exceeded when towing or pushing the airtrainer.
What gets power from VITAL busbar
Services which are required after an emergency landing or crash
- 1. Inertia switch operated fire extinguishers
- 2. Emergency Egress Lighting
- 3. ELT
- 4. Pitot Head.
- 5. Standby A/h
- 6. ATC (Transponder)
- 7. Nav Com #1
What gets power from ESSENTIAL busbar
Those services which are required to ensure safe flight during in-flight emergencies.
- 1. Flight Instruments
- 2. Radio and Navaids
- 3. FLight Controls
e.g. flap, HSI, Compass
What gets power from NON-ESSENTIAL busbar
Those services which are not essential to flight and may be isolated during an in-flight emergency, either by manual or automatic action.
- 1. Taxi Lights
- 2. Trim
- 3. Strobe Lights
An internal force that opposes or resists the deformation resulting from an external load.
The deformation of a material or substance.
Describe the two ice control systems
ANTI ICING is a prevention device
DE ICING is a cure for icing
Name 5 ice protection methods
- Momentum separation
- Thermal - Electrical
- Thermal - Bleed Air
What is the procedure if you overstress flaps?
Where possible leave flaps in the position the incident occurred, RTB and land for maintenance to carry out check for damage.
What are the flap air speed limits and G Force Limit
- 50% - 118 KTS
- Flap down - 101 KTS
G force limits with flaps extended - 0 to +2
What is the weight and balance formula?
weight x arm = moment
draw the airtrainer CoG graph
Indications and actions of Total Electric Failure
- Immediate appearance of off flags on the HSI and off scale low deflections of the oil and cylinder temperatures, fuel quantity and trim indicators. Further indications are zero readings on the voltammeter and loss of intercom.
Immediate Actions: (My Ass Can Munch Gay Longerons)
- 1. Master Switch ...............OFF
- 2. Alternator......................OFF
- 3. Circuit breakers.....Check/reset
- 4. Master Switch.................On
- 5. Gain/maintain VMC
- 6. LASAPRAC
- Note: If necessary, an attempt may be made to select alternator on.
- With the possibility of losing control whilst IMC, consideration should be given to bailing out.
Indications and actions of FUEL VAPORISATION
- - Fluctuations seen on both fuel flow gauge and miniflo.
- - Possible fluctuations in engine power
- 1. Mixture.............FULL RICH
- 2. Fuel Pump....On, wait 20 sec, AUTO
Note Fuel vaporisation may occur in hot ambient conditions. If above actions alleviate the problem, continue.
Indications and Actions for BLOCKED INJECTOR
- - Rough Running
- - Fuel flow gauge higher than normal
- - Miniflow probably no change
Indications and Actions for BROKEN FUEL LINE
- - Rough Running
- - Fuel flow gauge lower than normal
- - miniflow probably no change
- Immediate Action:
- 1. LASAPOSS
Caution: With a broken fuel line there is a risk of fire and the bale-out option should be preserved
Indications and Actions for RICH CUT
- - no throttle response from idle
- Immediate Action:
- 1. Mixture............. Lean severely
- 2. Throttle......................OPEN
- 3. Mixture....Richen as reqd if power restored
- 4. LASAPRAC
- 5. If power not restored, carry out Engine Failure Power Not Restored Checklist.
Describe how to picket an aircraft including notes, cautions, wind speeds etc.
- 1. Direction of Aircraft into prevailing wind
- 2. Control Lock fitted
- 3. Canopy jettison lock fitted
- 4. Wheel chocks chock wheels
- 5. Tie downs secure 3 tie down ropes to 3 tie down lugs, one on each wing tip and the third on the nose wheel. Ropes run at 45 degrees to the ground, with sufficient slack to avoid damage to the aircraft in the event of the ropes contracting due to moisture or a wheel going flat.
- 6. Canopy closed and secure
- 7. Canopy Cover fitted
- 8. Pitot Cover fit pressure head cover
- Aircraft that remain overnight are to be picketed. In adverse weather conditions are to be inspected every two hours.
- Wind precautions:
- 20-25 KTS: face into wind and fit main wheel chocks
- 25-35 KTS: remove all aircraft not assigned for flight from the flight line
- >35 KTS: Remove all aircraft from the flight line.
CAUTION: Care must be taken when fitting or removing the canopy cover as it may catch on the OAT probe and damage the canopy.
NOTE: Control locks must be fitted at all times.
MAUW for airtrainer
What is: (define and AT Limit)
- Va: Manoeuvre Limits (148KIAS)
- Vd: Max designed speeds (230KIAS)
- Vne: Maximum permissible dive speed (209KIAS)
- Vs: Stall speed
What is the AT aileron deflection limits?
100% at 148KIAS reducing to 50% at 209KIAS