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  1. Nutrition definition
    science of food, the nutrients and the substances therein; there action interaction and balance in relationships to health and disease
  2. What 3 functions do nutrients have?
    • Provide energy
    • Promote growth and development
    • Regulate body processes
  3. The main classes of nutrients are:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids (fats)
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  4. Macro-nutrients definition and what are they
    • Nutrients that are needed in large amounts
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Water
  5. Micro-nutrients definition and what they are
    • Nutrients that are needed in small amounts
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
  6. Calories per gram for Carbs ,fats,Proteins,and alcohol
    • Carbs - 4
    • fats-9
    • Proteins-4
    • Alcohol-7
  7. Desirable nutritional status
    to have enough body tissue of the nutrients to support normal functions
  8. undernurtition
    does not meet nutrient needs for your body.
  9. overnutrtion
    consumption of more nutrients than the body needs, which many lead to toxicity
  10. anthropometric measures
    height, weight,body circumferences and skin-fold thickness
  11. Biochemical assessments measures
    specific blood enzymes
  12. clinical assessment
    is physical evidence of diet-related disease
  13. Dietary assessment
    types of foods eaten over a long period of time
  14. environmental assessment
    person's education and economical background
  15. North American Diet does what?
    looks at food consumption trends such as excess calories, to few fruits and veggies
  16. Scientific Method
    • Make observation
    • Hypotheses
    • Experiment
    • Collect data from different sources
    • Draw conclusions about hypotheses
  17. Types of research
    • Epidemiological
    • Case Control
    • Double Blind
  18. What nurtients provide energy
    • carbs
    • proteins
    • lipids
    • * Vitamins dont**!
  19. Kilocalorie takes how many grams to raise the tempeture 1 degree C.?
  20. food is selected based on
  21. Migrant studies
    the changes in the health of ppl who move from one country to another
  22. Cohort Studies
    looks at healthy people, looking for the development of disease
  23. Case control
    studies people who have a disease, compared to people who dont
  24. Double Blind
    Experimental group and control group
  25. DRI
    Dietary Reference Intakes
  26. What are the 5 standards of DRI's
    • Estimated Average Requirement EAR
    • Recommended Dietary Allowences RDA
    • Adequate Intake AI
    • Upper Level Intake UP
    • Est. Energy Requirement EER
  27. EAR stands for
    Estimated Average Requirement
  28. RDA
    Recommended Dietary Allowances
  29. AI
    Adequate Intake
  30. UP
  31. EER
    Est. energy requirement
  32. RDA is
    the nutrients intake amount sufficient to meet the needs of most people
  33. AI is
    • there is no current set amount, due to the lack of research
    • *its just appox. b/c there has been no bad results from that amount
  34. UL is
    maximum intake amount of nutrients that are not likely to cause adverse health effects
  35. EER is
    est. energy needs go according to height, weight,gender,age and physical pattern
  36. Empty calories
    • not nutrient based, high in sugar and/ or fat. They are calories with empty nutrients
    • EX; cookies, soda,chips
  37. Energy Density definition
    • comparing a food's calorie content per gram weight of the food
    • * energy dense foods are high in calories but weigh very light, (snack foods,nuts)
  38. Food Insecure
    • unable to access enough food to lead healthy lives
    • *11% are insecure in the US
  39. Food Secure
    food needs are met all the time
  40. Organic must be
    maintained in healthy soil,manure, and composting
  41. Recombinant DNA technolgy
    the transfer of a gene that confers a specific trait
  42. Food addivites
    substances added to foods to produce a desired effect,such as longer shelf life
  43. GRAS stands for
    Generally recognized as safe
  44. Foodborn Illness
    sickness caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with pathogenic microorganism or toxins
  45. Danger Zone for food
    41-135 degrees f.
  46. Water is regulated by whom
    • Public water-EPA
    • Bottled Water-FDA
  47. Environments contaminatnts
    • Lead
    • Mercury
    • PCB
    • Pesticides
    • Antibiotics
  48. Organic Food facts
    • Synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and, antibiotics,synthetic hormones and sewage sludge are prohibited
    • 95% of all the ingredients must be organic to get approved
    • USDA certify all organic foods
  49. The main use of GM foods is:
    to improve pest control and weed management and protect crops against diseases
  50. Alfatoxin is produced by a mold that grows most often in what products
    peanuts and corn
  51. Tissuse Types (4)
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  52. Major organs in the GI tract (6)
    • Mouth
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
    • Anus
  53. Digestion definition
    the process of breaking down foods
  54. absorption definition
    uptake of nutrients from the GI tract into either the blood or the lymph
  55. From the inside out, what is the anatomy of the GI tract
    • Mucosa
    • Sub-mucosa
    • muscle
    • Serosa
  56. Saliva is produced where and what is the function
    in the mouth, it contributes to starch digestion,lubrication,swallowing
  57. Mucus is produced where and what is the function
    Mouth,Stomach,small and Large intestine, pancreas; it promotes GI tract cells, lubricates digesting food
  58. Enzymes are producted where and what is the function
    mouth , stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas, digestion of carbs,fats,and protien into small forms small enough for absorption
  59. Acid is producted where and what is the function
    Stomach, promotes digestion of protein, destroys microorganisms, increases solubility of minerals
  60. Bile is produced where and what is the function
    Liver; aids in fat digestion
  61. Bicarbonate is produced where and what is the function
    Pancreas and small intestine; Neutralizes stomach acid when it reaches small intestine
  62. Hormones are produced where, and what is the function
    Regulates digestion and absorption
  63. Amylase
    breaks down starch into simple sugars
  64. Pepsin
    Converts pepsinogen into the active protein
  65. Chyme
    Mixing transformation of solids foods
  66. The SMALL INTESTINE does what?
    digestion and absorption of food
  67. Passive Diffusion
    moves nutrients from a high concentration to a lower concentration
  68. Facilitated diffusion
    High concentration to less + a carrier protein
  69. Active absorption
    less concentration to greater + energy
  70. Endocytosis
  71. Two ways to transport nutrients
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic
  72. The most digestive enzymes are found
    Small intestine and pancres
  73. Peristalsis
    squeezing and shortening of the muscles in the GI tract
  74. where is the most bacteria housed at
    Large intestine
  75. the main role of the stomach in digestion and absorption is
    Mix ingested food to form chyme
  76. Villi is found where?
    small intestine
  77. what empties its contents into the small intestine via the sphincter ODDI
    Liver and Pancreas
  78. True or False
    Fat- soluble vitamins are absorbed directly into the cardiovasular system
  79. What 2 things are absorbed by the large intestine
    Water and Electrolytes
  80. probiotics treat
    Diarrhea in children
  81. What disorder is called bu Helicobacter Pylori ?
    peptic ulcer
  82. What organ produces hydrochloric acid
  83. What organ produces sodium Bicarbinate
  84. What organ produces bile
  85. What organ produced CCK
    Small intestine
  86. What organ produces Lipase
    pancrease and small intestine
Card Set
Test 1
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