DNA mutations

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  1. transition mut
    purine for purine or pyrimidine for pyrimidine
  2. transversion mut
    pyrimidine for purine or purine for pyrimidine
  3. mutagens
    agents that cause mutations
  4. deamination
    chemicals that deaminate amino groups on the bases of keto groups (A to HX, G to X, C to U)

    can be chem induced, spont, or induced by reactive oxygen species that are prod as by-prod of oxidative metabolism

    changes base-pairing properties
  5. A to HX (hypoxanthine)
    upon replication using newly mutated HX, C is added instead of T (for previous A); other unmutated parent strand is normal (AT pairing)
  6. C to U mutation
    upon replication using newly mutated U, A is added instead of G (for previous C); other unmutated parent strand is normal (GC pairing)
  7. ethylene oxide
    alkylating agent that covalently modifies DNA; modifies G residue to make ethylguanine which will pair w/ T instead of C
  8. Benzo [alpha] pyrene
    alkylating agent that covalently modifies DNA; results in distortion of DNA helical structure; upon replication, DNA prod contains an insertion
  9. cross-linking
    mutation of DNA; used in medications too
  10. Psoralin
    • activated by UV light;
    • cross-linker that is used in dermabration, treatment of psoriasis, and photo-chemotherapy
  11. mitocyin C
    cross-linker used in chemotherapy
  12. radiation damage
    • DNA fragmentation
    • thymidine dimerization
    • shift in eq of tautomeric forms of bases
  13. thymidine dimerization
    UV light causes two adjacent thymidine residues to form covalently linked dimer
  14. tautomeric shift
    caused by radiation damage; keto and enol tautomers shift in eq
  15. adenine (amino)
    pairs w/ thymine
  16. adenine (imino)
    pairs w/ cytosine
  17. thymine (keto)
    paris w/ adenine
  18. thymine (enol)
    paris w/ guanine
Card Set
DNA mutations
MS1/Mod 2: Biochemistry; DNA mutations
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