PGS 101 Chapter One

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gingerpoulson
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101226
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PGS 101 Chapter One
Updated:
2011-09-12 11:26:32
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Psychology
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Chapter One Definitions
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  1. Academic Psychologists
    Psychologists who focus on teaching and conducting research
  2. Applied Psychologists
    Psychologists who focus on teaching and conducting research to help solve specific practical problems
  3. Behavior
    The outwardly observable acts of a person, alone or in a group
  4. Behaviorism
    The school of psychology that focuses on how a specific stimulus (object, person,or vent) evokes a specific response (behavior in reaction to the stimulus)
  5. Case Study
    A scientific study that focuses on a single participant, examining his orher psychological characteristics (at any or all of the levels of analysis) in detail
  6. Clinical Psychologist
    The type of psychologist who is trained to provide psychotherapyand to administer and interpret psychological tests
  7. Control Group
    A group that is treated exactly the same way as the experimental group,except that the independent variable that is the focus of the study is notmanipulated. The control group holds constant—“controls”—all of the variablesin the experimental group
  8. Dependent Variable
    The aspect of the situation that is measured as the values of anindependent variable are changed
  9. Experimental
    Condition
    A part of a study in which participants receive the completeprocedure that defines the experiment
  10. Experimental Group
    A group that receives the complete procedure that defines the experiment
  11. Functionalism
    The school of psychology that sought to understand how the mind helps individualsto adapt to the world around them, to function effectively in it
  12. Gestalt Psychology
    An approach to understanding mental events that focuses on the ideathat the whole is more than the sum of its parts
  13. Humanistic Psychology
    The school of psychology that assumes people have positive values,free will, and deep inner creativity, the combination of which allow them tochoose life-fulfilling paths to personal growth
  14. Hypothesis
    Atentative idea that might explain a set of observations
  15. Independent Variable
    The aspect of the situation that is deliberately and independentlyvaried while another aspect is measured
  16. Informed Consent
    The requirement that a potential participant in a study be told what heor she will be asked to do and be advised of possible risks and benefits of thestudy before formally agreeing to take part
  17. Introspection
    The technique of observing your mental events as, or immediately after, they occur
  18. Level of the Brain
    Events that involve the activity, structure, and properties of theorgan itself—brain cells and their connections, the chemical solutions in whichthey exist and the genes
  19. Level of the Group
    Events that involve relationships between people (such as love,competition and cooperation), relationships among groups, and culture.
  20. Level of the Person
    Events that involve the function (mental processes) and content(mental content) of the mind
  21. Mental Contents
    Knowledge, beliefs (including ideas, explanations and expectations),desires (such as hopes, goals and needs), and feelings (such as fears, guiltand attractions)
  22. Mental Processes
    Sets of operations that work together to carry out a function, suchas attention, perception, or memory
  23. Prediction
    Ahypothesis that follows from a theory, which should be confirmed if the theoryis correct
  24. Pseudo Psychology Theories or statements that at first glance look like psychology but
    are in fact superstition or unsupported opinion, not based in science
    Theories or statements that at first glance look like psychology butare in fact superstition or unsupported opinion, not based in science
  25. Psychotherapy
    The process of helping people learn to change so they can cope with troublesomethoughts, feelings and behaviors
  26. Structuralism
    The school of psychology that sought to identify the basic elements ofconsciousness and to describe the rules and circumstances under which theseelements combine to form mental structures
  27. Survey
    A set of questions that people are asked about their beliefs, attitudes,preferences, or activities
  28. Unconscious
    Outside conscious awareness and not able to be brought into consciousness at will

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