PGS 101 Chapter 2

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Author:
gingerpoulson
ID:
101228
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PGS 101 Chapter 2
Updated:
2011-09-12 11:39:16
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Psychology
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Chapter 2 Definitions
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  1. Action Potential
    The shifting change in charge that moves down the axon
  2. Active Interaction
    Occurs when people choose, partly based on genetic tendencies, toput themselves in specific situations and to avoid others
  3. Agonist
    A chemical that mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter by activating a type ofreceptor
  4. Antagonist
    A chemical that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter
  5. Axon
    The sending end of the neuron; the long cable-like structure extending from thecell body
  6. Basal Ganglia
    Subcortical structures that play a role in planning, learning newhabits and producing movement
  7. Brain Circuit
    A set of neurons that work together to receive input, operate on it insome way, and produce specific outcome
  8. Cell Body
    The central part of a neuron (or other cell), which contains the nucleus
  9. Cell Membrane
    The skin that surrounds a cell
  10. Cerebellum
    A large structure at the base of the brain that is concerned in part withphysical coordination, estimating time and paying attention
  11. Cerebral Cortex
    The convoluted pinkish-gray outer layer of the brain where most mentalprocesses arise
  12. Cerebral Hemisphere
    A left or right half-brain, shaped roughly like half a sphere
  13. Dendrites
    The treelike part of a neuron that receives messages from the axons of other neurons
  14. Evocative Interaction
    Occurs when genetically influenced characteristics (both behavioraland physical) induce other people to behave in particular ways
  15. Genotype
    The genetic code within an organism
  16. Glial Cell
    A type of cell that helps neurons and generally helps in the “care andfeeding” of neurons
  17. Hippocampus
    A subcortical structure that plays a key role in allowing new information to bestored in the brain’s memory banks
  18. Hypothalamus
    A brain structure that sits under the thalamus and plays a central role incontrolling eating and drinking and in regulating the body’s temperature, bloodpressure, heart rate, sexual behavior and hormones
  19. Interneuron
    A neuron that is connected to other neurons, not to sense organs or muscles
  20. Lesion
    A region of impaired brain tissue
  21. Lobes
    The four major parts of each cerebral hemisphere—occipital, temporal, parietal, andfrontal; each lobe is present in each hemisphere
  22. Motor Neuron
    A neuron that sends signals to muscles in order to control movement (andalso to bodily organs, such as glands)
  23. Myelin
    A fatty substance that helps impulses efficiently travel down the axon
  24. Neurons
    A cell that receives signals from sense organs or other neurons, processes thesesignals, and sends the signals to muscles, organs or other neurons; the basicunit of the nervous system
  25. Occipital Lobes
    The brain lobes at the back of the head; concerned entirely withdifferent aspects of vision
  26. Parietal Lobes The brain lobes at the top, rear of the brain; among their functions are
    attention, arithmetic, touch and registering special location
    The brain lobes at the top, rear of the brain; among their functions areattention, arithmetic, touch and registering special location
  27. Passive Interaction
    Occurs when genetically shaped behavioral tendencies of parents orsiblings produce an environment that is passively received by the child
  28. Phenotype
    The observable structure and behavior of an organism
  29. Plasticity
    The brain’s ability to change as a result of experience
  30. Pruning
    A process whereby certain connections among neurons are eliminated
  31. Receptor
    A site on a dendrite or cell body where a neurotransmitter, molecule attachesitself; like a lock that is opened by one key, a receptor receives only one typeof neurotransmitter
  32. Resting Potential
    The negative charge within a neuron when it is at rest
  33. Reuptake
    The process by which surplus neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft is reabsorbedback into the sending neuron so that the neuron can effectively fire again
  34. Stroke
    A cause of brain damage that occurs when blood (with its life-giving nutrientsand oxygen) fails to reach part of the brain, and thus neurons in that area die
  35. Synapse
    The place where an axon of one neuron sends signals to the membrane (on a dendriteor cell body) of another neuron; the synapse includes the sending portions ofan axon, the receiving portions of the receiving neuron, and the space betweenthem
  36. Synaptic Cleft
    The gap in the synapse between the axon of one neuron and the membrane ofanother across which communication occurs
  37. Temporal Lobes
    The brain lobes under the temples, in front of the ears; among its manyfunctions are processing sound, entering new information into memory, storingvisual memories, and comprehending language
  38. Terminal Button
    A structure at the end of the branch of an axon that can releasechemicals into the space between neurons
  39. Thalamus
    A subcortical structure that receives signals from sensory and motor systems andplays a crucial role in attention, sleep, and the other functions critical todaily life; often thought of as a switching center

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