9.9.2011 [nervous system]

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Anonymous
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101231
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9.9.2011 [nervous system]
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2011-09-12 11:56:18
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nervous system
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Peripheral and Autonomic nervous System Info
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  1. Tract
    • bundle of nerve fibers (axons) in the central nervous system
    • "white matter of the brain and the spinal cord"
  2. Nerve
    bundle of nerve fibers (axons) in the Peripheral nervous system
  3. Nucleus
    • collection of nerve cell bodies (somas) in the Central Nervous System
    • "mostly brain, some spine"
  4. Ganglion
    • bundle of Nerve Cell Bodies (somas) in the Peripheral Nervous System
    • Ex) sympathetic trunk ganglion
  5. Fascicle (two definitions)
    • 1) group of axons within a connective tissue sheath within a nerve
    • 2) Group of Nerves
  6. Plexus
    network of nerves
  7. Epineurium
    • Thick sheath of connective tissue surrounding an entire nerve
    • Connective Tissue enveloping a bundle of fascicles
    • outermost covering of a nerve
  8. Perineurium
    connective tissue surrounding over a fascicle
  9. Endoneurium
    • delicate connective tissue covering an individual axon and its neurolemma
    • (not visible in lab)
  10. Pre - Ganglionic
    • Neuron whose synaptic terminals enter into a synapse
    • "nerve 1"
    • aka: pre - synaptic
  11. Post - Ganglionic
    • neuron whose axons are leaving a synapse; neuron whose dendrites are in a synapse
    • "nerve 2"
    • aka: post - synaptic
  12. Afferent (with respect to the nervous system)
    • (Sensory)
    • A nerve fiber (axon) which carries information toward the central nervous system
  13. Efferent (with respect to the nervous system)
    • (Motor)
    • A nerve fiber (axon) which carries information away from the central nervous system
    • "towards the peripheral nervous system"
  14. one Peripheral nerve Fiber contains:
    • 1) an axon (and its neurolemma, plasmalemma, or axolemma)
    • 2) their connective tissue covering, often but not always myelin sheath
    • 3) synaptic terminals/ synaptic buttons/ synaptic endings
  15. Myelin Sheath
    really the plasma membrane of the Schwann Cells
  16. Most Cutaneous Nerves are ?
    unmyelinated
  17. Neurolemma
    • Cell membranes of the schwann cells that surround an axon
    • (separate one axon from another axon)
  18. Functions of the Peripheral nervous System
    • 1) Conveys neural impulses to the central nervous system from sense organs and sensory receptors
    • 2) Conveys neural impulses from the Central Nervous System to muscles and glands
  19. how many Cranial nerves?
    12 Pairs
  20. how many Spinal Nerves?
    • 31 Pairs
    • (8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal)
  21. Spinal Nerves
    Mixed Nerves
  22. Cranial Nerves exit thru _________?
    foramina in the cranium
  23. Spinal Nerves exit thru ______________ ?
    intervertebral foramina
  24. The Somatic nervous system provides _______ ?
    • Provides: general sensory and motor innervation to all parts of the body
    • except for the viscera in the body cavities, smooth muscles, and glands
  25. Epidural Space
    fat - filled space between dura mater and the vertebral column
  26. Visceral nervous System
    - sensory -
    - motor -
    • Sensory: viscera of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis
    • Motor: cadiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands
  27. Somatic Nervous System
    -Sensory-
    -Motor-
    • Sensory: skin, periosteum, joints, skeletal muscle, fascia (transmit sensations from sensory receptors)
    • Motor: body wall, extremities, head, neck and skeltal muscle (stimulate skeletal muscle, causing muscle contraction)
  28. Visceral Nervous System subdivides into ?
    • The AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • 1) Sympathetic Nervous System
    • 2) Parasympathetic Nervous System
  29. Function of Autonomic Nervous System
    f: maintain a stable environment by regulating circulation, breathing, digestion, and other internal functions
  30. Autonomic Nervous System Affects?
    involuntarily affects the cardiac muscle, smooth muscle of internal organs, and glands
  31. Similarites between the Sympathetic Nervous System and the Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • 1) they innervate many of the same structures (thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic viscera)
    • 2) they have two neurons in their pathways, with one cell outside of the central nervous system
    • 3) Both use Acetylcholine as the neurontransmitter for the pre - ganglionic neuron (Acetylchoine is used between the pre - ganglionic and the post - ganglionic neurons)
    • 4) both regulate the same homeostatic systems (blood pressure, and heart rate) → essentially have the same function...
  32. origin of the Sypathetic Nervous System
    • Thoracolumbar (T1-L2)
    • cell bodies originate in the lateral gray horn of the spinal cord
  33. origin of the Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • Cranial - Sacral
    • (Cranial nerves: 3, 7, 9, 10)
    • (Sacral nerves: 2, 3, 4)
  34. where is the post - ganglionic motor neuron located at? (for the Sympathetic nervous system)
    A Peripheral Nervous System Ganglion which is far from the target organ
  35. Length of the Sympathetic Pre - Ganglionic axons (fibers)?
    short: b/c the ganglia are close to the spinal cord
  36. where is the post - ganglionic motor neuron located at? (for the Parasympathetic Nervous System)?
    A Peripheral Nervous Ganglion which is IN or very near to the target organ
  37. Length of the ParaSympathetic pre - ganglionic axons (fibers)?
    long: b/c the autonomic ganglia have to travel to reach the organs (which is pretty much where the post - ganglionic neuron is located)
  38. Sympathetic: Neurotransmitter used at synapse with target organ
    Norepinephrine (or epinephrine or noradrenaline)
  39. Parasympathetic: Neurotransmitter used at synapse with targe organ
    Acetylcholine
  40. Which Autonomic Nervous System(s) innervate the body wall or extemities
    • Sympathetic Nervous System DOES
    • Parasympathetic Nervous System DOESN'T!!!!
  41. Gray Matter in the Central Nervous System
    nerve cell bodies in the Central Nervous System (nucleus)
  42. Surrounding and Protecting the Central Nervous System
    Meninges and the Cerebrospinal Fluid
  43. Meninges
    pia mater + arachnoid mater + dura mater

    Brain & Spinal Cord → Pia Mater → Cerebrospinal Fluid → Arachnoid Mater → Pia Mater
  44. How many Efferent Pathways does the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System have?
    two
  45. ParaVertebral Ganglion
    • linked together to form the right and left sympathetic trunk on each side of the Vertebral Column
    • (many ParaVertebral Ganglion added together = Sympathetic Trunk)
  46. The Myelinated Preganglionic Nerve fibers leave the gray matter of the spinal cord via the ___________ ?
    (Efferent # 1 and #2 for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    Ventral Root
  47. Sympathetic Pre - Ganglionic Nerve Fibers leave the gray matter of the spinal cord and enter into a ________ ?
    (Efferent # 1 and #2 for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    Spinal Nerve
  48. Sympathetic Pre - Ganglionic Fibers leave the spinal cord via the Ventral Root and enter into a spinal nerve, from there they go to a _________?
    (Efferent # 1 and #2 for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    ParaVertebral Ganglion of the Sympathetic Trunk
  49. (Efferent # 1 and #2 for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    When the Sympathetic Pre - Ganglionic Fibers enter into the ParaVertebral Ganglion they do this via the _______ ?
    White Rami Communicantes
  50. (Efferent # 1 for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    Once the Sympathetic Pre - Ganglionic myelinated fibers enter the paravertebral ganglion of the sympathetic trunk they then ____A____ with ____B____
    • A) synapse
    • B) another neuron in the sympathetic trunk (ganglion)
  51. (Efferent # 1 for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    Once the Synapse occurs the Post - ganglionic Fibers are _______ ?
    Unmyelinated
  52. (Efferent # 1 for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    The unmyelinated post - ganglionic fibers leave the ganglion via ___A_____ and join up with ___B___ ?
    • A) Gray rami communicantes
    • B) Spinal Nerves
  53. (Efferent # 1 for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    The unmyelinated Post - Ganglionic Fibers travel thru spinal nerves to reach _______ ?
    • sweat glands,
    • arrector pili muscles of the skin,
    • smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels
  54. (Efferent # 2 for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    Does Synapse Occur?
    NO!!!!!!!
  55. (Efferent # 2 for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    When the Pre - Ganglionic Fibers leave they spinal nerve what do they become?
    • Separate, special nerves
    • [greater, lesser, and lowest Splanchnic Nerves]
  56. How many afferent pathways exist for the Sympathetic Autonmic Nervous System?
    One
  57. (Afferent pathway for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    starting fibers are ______ ?
    Myelinated Axons in the Viscera
  58. (Afferent pathway for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    From the viscera where do the myelinated axons go first? second?
    • Spinal Nerves: first
    • sympathetic ganglion: second
  59. (Afferent pathway for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    how do the myelinated axons reach the sympathetic gangion?
    via the white rami communicantes
  60. (Afferent pathway for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    From the Sympathetic Ganglion where do the myelinated axons go? and how?
    they re - enter a spinal nerve via the white rami communicantes
  61. (Afferent pathway for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    After the myelinated axons leave the spinal nerve, go to the sympathetic ganglion and back to another spinal nerve, they travel in that spinal nerve until they reach ________ ?
    the Dorsal Root Ganglion, or go on to higher Central Nervous System Levels
  62. (Afferent pathway for the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System)
    if the myelinated axon reaches the Dorsal Root Ganglia, what does it form ______ ?
    Forms part of a Reflex Arc
  63. Effect of the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System
    widespread, over a sustained amount of time
  64. Pupils: Sympathetic
    dilated
  65. Bronchi: Sympathetic
    Dilated
  66. Heart ♥: Sympathetic
    increased heart rate and blood pressure
  67. Intestines: Sympathetic
    Relaxation; close sphincters
  68. urinary bladder: Sympathetic
    • inhibit contraction;
    • close sphincter
  69. Sweat Glands: Sympathetic
    Increase Secretion
  70. Peripheral Blood Vessels: Sympathetic
    Constricted
  71. Neurotransmitters for they Sympathetic Autonomic System
    • Pre - Ganglionic = Acetlycholine
    • Post - Ganglionic = Norepinephrine
  72. Pre - Ganglionic Sympathetic Fibers found in:
    • 1) Ventral Roots of Spinal Nerves
    • 2) White Rami Communicantes
    • 3) Peripheral Nerves
  73. Post - Ganglionic Sympathetic Fibers Found in:
    • 1) spinal nerves
    • 2) gray rami communicantes
    • 3) peripheral nerves
  74. Sympathetic Fibers that are visible in the cadaver
    • 1) Sympathetic Trunk
    • (sympathetic Ganglia are the bumps that together make up the sympathetic ganglia)
    • 2) Sympathetic Nerves
  75. Cell Bodies in the ParaSympathetic Autonomic Nervous System originate where?
    • in the Brainstem (Nuclei)
    • lateral horns of Sacral Cord
  76. [ParaSympathetic: Efferent]
    Pre-Ganglionic Fibers are ______ ?
    Myelinated
  77. [ParaSympathetic: Efferent]
    Pre - Ganglionic Fibers leaving the skull are called?
    Cranial Nerves
  78. [ParaSympathetic: Efferent]
    Pre - Ganglionic Fibers leaving the Spinal Cord leave via _______ ?
    Ventral Root of Spinal Nerve and Pelvic Splanchnic Nerves
  79. [ParaSympathetic: Efferent]
    Myelinated Pre - Ganglionic Synapse in a ________ ?
    Peripheral Ganglion near an organ
  80. [ParaSympathetic: Afferent]
    Fibers are _______ ?
    Myelinated
  81. [ParaSympathetic: Afferent]
    Fibers originate in the _______ ?
    Viscera
  82. [ParaSympathetic: Afferent]
    From the viscera the myelinated fibers travel in ________ or ____________ ?
    • Sensory Ganglia of Cranial Nerves (or)
    • Dorsal Root Ganglion
  83. once the fibers enter the Central Nervous System what can they do?
    [ParaSympathetic: Afferent]
    • 1) form a reflex arc
    • 2) travel to higher levels
  84. [ParaSympathetic: Afferent]
    Once the fibers enter the Sensory Ganglia of Cranial Nerves or the Dorsal Root Ganglion, where do they go?
    The Central Nervous System (the Brain or Spinal Cord)
  85. Pre - Ganglionic parasympathetic Fibers are found in:
    • 1) cranial nerves
    • 2) spinal nerves
    • 3) pelvic splanchnic nerves
  86. Post - Ganglionic Parasympathetic Fibers are found in:
    1) Peripheral Nerves near target organ
  87. Cranial Nerve 10 = ?
    • Vagus Nerve (also known as a parasympathetic structure)
    • - Parasympathetic Pre - Ganglionic Myelinated Axons
  88. Parasympathetic Autonomic Nervous System is also known as:
    "cholinergic system"
  89. Effect of the ParaSympathetic Autonomic Nervous System
    Small area is affected, over a short amount of time
  90. Pupil: ParaSympathetic Autonomic Nervous System
    Constricted
  91. Bronchi: ParaSympathetic Autonomic Nervous System
    Bronchoconstriction
  92. Heart: ParaSympathetic Autonomic Nervous System
    decrease heart rate and blood pressure
  93. Intestines: ParaSympathetic Autonomic Nervous System
    Contraction, Relax Sphincters
  94. Urinary Bladder: ParaSympathetic Autonomic Nervous System
    • Stimulate Contraction;
    • Relax sphincter
  95. Sweat Glands: ParaSympathetic Autonomic Nervous System
    Decrease Secretion
  96. Peripheral Blood Vessels: ParaSympathetic Autonomic Nervous System
    Relax
  97. Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System is also known as:
    Adrenergic System
  98. Two types of neuroglia in the Central Nervous System
    (there are 4 main types, know the 2)
    • 1) astrocytes
    • 2) oligodendrocytes
  99. One type of Neuroglia in the Peripheral Nervous System
    (there are 2 main types, know the 1)
    Schwann Cells
  100. Schwann Cells
    wrapped around the axon; insulate axon
  101. Cranial Nerves supply to where?
    Supply the Head and the Neck
  102. Spinal Nerves
    outside bone

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