Genetics Chap 1

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asu
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101243
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Genetics Chap 1
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2011-09-12 13:34:34
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Genetics Chap
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Chap 1
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  1. Research focus: Evolution
    What is the subdiscipline?
    Population Genetics
  2. Research focus: Chemical nature of gene
    Subdiscipline: Molecular Genetics
  3. Research focus: Gene regulation
    Subdiscipline: Molecular Genetics
  4. Research focus: Arrangement of genes on chromosomes
    Subdiscipline: Transmission genetics
  5. Research focus: Gene mapping
    Subdiscipline: Transmission genetics
  6. Research focus: Differences in allele frequencies in wet and dry environments
    Subdiscipline: Population genetics
  7. Research focus: Differences in gene function in wet and dry environments
    Subdiscipline: Molecular genetics
  8. Research focus: Translation
    Subdiscipline: Molecular genetics
  9. True/False
    Humans first applied genetics to the domestication of plants and animals between approximately 10,000 and 12,000 years ago.
    True
  10. The theory of pangenesis states that all living organisms are composed of cells.
    False
  11. Many human traits such as skin and hair color, exhibit blending inheritance, in which genetic information is mixed and is not separated in future generations.
    False
  12. Bacteria and viruses can be used to study genes and inheritance, even though they are structurally and metabolically different from animal and plant cells.
    True
  13. Some viruses have RNA as their genetic information.
    True
  14. Charles Darwin accurately described the laws of inheritance in his landmark book, On the Origin of Species.
    False
  15. Albinism requires a mutation in all of the genes that control the synthesis and storage of melanin.
    False
  16. Most phenotypes or traits, such as hair color, are
    determined solely by the information provided by a single gene.
    False
  17. Evolution cannot occur
    without genetic changes in populations.
    True
  18. Cell theory
    supported, correct
  19. Pangenesis
    Incorrect
  20. Blending inheritance
    Incorrect
  21. Inheritance of acquired characteristics
    incorrect
  22. The central dogma that genetic information passes from DNA to RNA to protein
    supported, coreect
  23. germ-plasm theory
    supported, correct
  24. The first complete DNA sequence of a non-viral, free-living
    organism was obtained for

    a. a bacterium in 1900.

    b. a bacterium in 1945.

    c. a bacterium in 1995.

    d. humans in 1990.

    e. humans in 2000.
    C
  25. Genetic information can be carried in which of the following
    biomolecules?

    a. proteins

    b. DNA and not RNA

    c. RNA and not DNA

    d. Either DNA or RNA
    D
  26. Which of the following species is considered a genetic model organism?

    a. The
    plant, Linaria vulgaris

    b. The deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus

    c. The worm, Caenorhabditis elegans

    d. The frog, Hyla chrysoscelis

    e. The chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes
    C
  27. The three-dimensional structure of DNA was first deciphered based on the work of:

    a. James Watson

    b. Francis Crick

    c. Maurice Wilkins

    d. Rosalind Franklin

    e. all of the above
    E
  28. Which of the following scientists contributed significantly to the foundations of population genetics?

    a. James Watson

    b. Thomas Hunt Morgan

    c. Ronald Fisher

    d. Charles Darwin
    C
  29. Which of the following scientists contributed significantly to the foundations of molecular genetics?

    a. James Watson

    b. Thomas Hunt Morgan

    c. John B. S. Haldane

    d. Charles Darwin
    A
  30. Which of the following scientists contributed significantly to the foundations of transmission genetics?

    a. James Watson

    b. Thomas Hunt Morgan

    c. John B. S. Haldane

    d. Charles Darwin
    B
  31. The contribution Charles Darwin made to genetics was to

    a. demonstrate the connection between Mendel’s principles of inheritance and
    evolution.

    b. propose that evolution occurs by natural selection.

    c. develop
    the theory of evolution, based on earlier theories of population genetics.

    d. connect the fields of evolution
    and molecular genetics.
    B
  32. The contribution of Gilbert and Sanger to modern genetics was to

    a. develop the PCR technique.

    b. discover DNA in the nucleus of
    cells.

    c. describe the structure of DNA.

    d. show that genes were made of
    DNA.

    e. develop a method for sequencing DNA.
    E
  33. Which of the following is not a component within a single nucleotide of a nucleic acid?

    a. nitrogenous base

    b. sugar

    c. polymerase

    d. phosphate
    C
  34. " " is a field in genetics that combines molecular biology and computer science.
    Bioinformatics
  35. A measurable or observable trait or characteristic is called a(n) " ".
    Phenotype
  36. The complete genetic makeup of any organism is its " ".
    Genome
  37. A form of a gene that has a slightly different sequence than other forms of the same gene
    but encodes the same type of an RNA or protein, is called a(n)
    Allele
  38. " " is a change in allele frequency of a population over time.
    Evolution
  39. Permanent, heritable changes in genetic information (DNA) are called
    Mutations
  40. Within cells, genes are located on structures called
    Chromosomes

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