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2011-09-12 14:16:39

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  1. -Roots of psychology come from borrowed theories of philosophy and physiology
    -As role of brain is recognized in mental processes and behavior (hard to replicate)
    -Wilhelm Wundt, Founder
    of scientific psychology + Edward Titchener (student of Wundt)
    -Focused on identifying “building blocks of consciousness”
    (their main tool): Looking within
    -Not objectively verifiable
    -Limited access (excludes unconscious mind)
  2. -(apply to mental characteristics; focus=social issues)

    -William James
    -Influenced by Darwin’s theory of evolution
    -Natural Selection
    -Studied how the mind helps individuals to function in their environment
    observations provide clues for human behavior
    -Focused on pragmatic issues
  3. -Still present today
    -Consciousness -> perception
    -Max Wertheimer
    -Focused of consciousness & principles of perceptual organization
    -The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
    • Gestalt
    • Psychology
  4. -Sigmund Freud
    -Mind has separate components (conscious vs unconscious)
    -Much of behavior is influenced by unconscious
    -Psychoanalysis: Push & pull interaction between conscious and unconscious forcing abnormal behaviors
    Psychodynamic Theory
  5. -Events at the level of the person
    -John Watson & BF Skinner
    -Mind cannot be observed
    -Behavior can be observed
    -Science should study the observable
  6. -Studied @ level of person
    -Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow (Maslow's hierarchy of needs)
    -Client-centric therapy
    -Positive Psychology
    Humanistic Psychology
  7. -Ties to computer age; focuses on brain
    -Alan Newell & Herbert Simon
    -Focus on mental processes (information processing)
    -Computer metaphor
    -Cognitive neuroscience
    Cognitive Revolution
  8. -More global
    -Leda Cosmides, John Took, David Bus & Steven Pinker
    -Evolutionarily successful cognitive strategies & goals survived
    -comparison of human & prenatal abilities
    Evolutionary Psychology
  9. -Psychotherapy
    -clinical neuropsychology
    -psychological testing
    Clinical Psychology
  10. -Every day issues (help people with)
    -Career Counseling
    -Vocational testing
    Counseling psychology
  11. -Teach Classes
    -Conduct Research
    Academic Psychologists
  12. Solve problems in practical areas
    Applied Psychologists
  13. -NOT psychology at all
    -Theories or statements that at first glance look like psychology but in fact are superstition or unsupportable opinion
    -EX; ESP or Astrology
    Pseudo Psychology
  14. -The result of neural responses that occur after physical energy stimulates a receptor cell but before the stimulus is organized and interpreted by the brain
    -In vision the receptor cell specifies basic characteristics, such as color.
    -In hearing, vibrations or waves stimulate ‘hair’ receptor cells
  15. -The result of neural processes that organize and interpret information conveyed by sensory signals
    -In vision, perception separates the object from its background and interprets its place
    -In hearing, sounds become meaningful when matched to previously stored memories
  16. -The
    development of depth perception
    cliff simulation
    Visual Cliff
  17. -studies the relation between physical events and the experience of the event
    -The concept of ‘thresholds’-The point at
    which stimuli activates receptor cells enough to be sensed.
  18. -A constant percentage of a magnitude change is necessary to detect a difference
    Weber's Law
  19. -The ‘what’ and ‘where’ mechanism in the brain
    -“What” Identifying objects by accessing prior information about the object (example-
    -“Where” how objects are arranged in the scene
    -Damage to the brain can interfere with this process
    Identifying Objects and spacial relations
  20. When we experience sensation to organization and identification-we are experiencing _________
    processing. (Stimuli or physical energy striking receptor cells and
    putting sensation and perception in motion)
    Bottom Up Processing
  21. When we are guided by Expectation, or knowledge or belief, (imposing what we want onan object, “what we expect to see”) we are experiencing _______ processing
    Top down Processing
  22. Begins when physical energy strikes the ear, in
    pressure or sound waves

    Sound waves occur when something vibrates, or when molecules move and create pressure
    waves (gas, liquid, or solid)
    Auditory Sensations
  23. -How high or low a sound seems
    -Higher frequencies or pressures waves produce the experience of higher pitches
  24. -The strength of a sound

    -Pressure waves with greater amplitude produce the experience of louder sound
  25. _______ theory holds that higher frequencies produce pressure to sound. This theory cannot
    explain the full extent of our ability to hear. Neurons can fire only about a
    thousand times a second at most, so it doesn’t explain how people hear sounds
    produced by much higher frequencies
    Frequency Theory
  26. According to _____ theory, different frequencies activate different places along the
    basilar membrane. This theory appears to be correct, at least for most frequencies. It is possible, however, that the rate of vibration does help us
    hear relatively low tones.
    Place theory
  27. When people listen to stimuli presented separately in two different years, even though they’re instructed to listen to only one set of information that has
    been given, there is some level of functioning from the other
    Cocktail Party phenomenon
  28. -Not being aware of other conversations until triggered (Hear your name or a
    familiar voice) then becoming immediately aware

    -When attending a conversation, we are still registering some information with ‘the
    other ear’

    -Study by Cherry
    Dichotic Listening