Bio1913: Unit One Exam

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JARoberts
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101259
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Bio1913: Unit One Exam
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2011-09-12 15:06:44
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Bio1913 Lecture Unit One Exam
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Based on lectures by Dr. Cox
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  1. What is a plaqu in regards to viruses?
    Spots on a bacteria lawn or cell culture where a virus has phagocitized (killed) bacteria
  2. Bacteriophage
    Viruses which infect bacteria
  3. Virus Envelope
    Surrounds the capsid

    Host origin

    Not present in all viruses
  4. Virus Spikes
    Special proteins in the capsid
  5. Capsomere
    Protein unit of a virus
  6. Capsid
    Protein coat of a virus
  7. Bacteria vs. Virus
    • Like bacteria, viruses do not:
    • - have a plasma membrane
    • - replicate thru binary fission
    • - Possess both DNA & RNA (only one or the other)
    • - Do not have an ATP-generating metabolism
    • - Do not have Ribosomes
    • - Are not sensative to antibiotics

    • Unlike Bacteria, viruses do:
    • - Act as intracellular parasites
    • - Pass through bacterial filters
    • - Are sensative to interferon
  8. Wavelength (microscopy)
    Resultion is dependant on wavelength

    The short the wavelength, the more energy the light contains

    Visable light has a wavelength between 400 (violet - most energetic) and 600 (red)
  9. Depth of Field
    Priciple which states that as magnification increases, the depth of field decreases
  10. Magnification (microscopy)
    Total Magnification = Magnification of eyepiece + Magnification of Objective

    • Ex: 10x eyepiece + 40x objective = 400x total
    • 15x eyepiece + 40x objective = 600x total
  11. Properties of a Virus
    • - Not living
    • - Protein Coat
    • - Only one nucleic acid (RNA or DNA - not both)
    • - Obligate Intracellular Parasite: cannot replicate without infecting a host
  12. Resolution (microscopy)
    The ability to distinguish one point from another
  13. What connection do eukaryotic mitochondia & chloroplasts have with bacteria?
    Eukaryotic Mitochondria (synthesize ATP) and Chloroplasts (synthesize sugar/starch) may have originated from archaic prokarytes.
  14. Scanning Electron Microscopy
    3D image of surface structures

    • Mag - 100,000x
    • Res - 10nm
  15. Bacteria Nucleoid vs. Typical Cell Nucleus
    • Bacteria:
    • - No envelope
    • - 1 Chromosome
    • - Replicates through binary fission

    • Typical Cell:
    • - Envelope
    • - Many Chromosomes
    • - Replicates through mitosis
  16. Differential Interference Microscopy
    3D Image of live specimen

    • Mag - 2000x
    • Res - 0.2u
  17. Fluorescence Microscopy
    Diagnostic Tool

    • Mag - 2000x
    • Res - 0.2u
  18. Confocal Microscopy
    Ultrastructure Studies

    • Mag - 2000x
    • Res - 0.2u
  19. Germination (prokaryotes)
    The return of dormant spores to a vegetative state
  20. Sporulation (prokaryotes)
    The formation of endospores

    Occurs when bacteria has run out of nutrients
  21. Transmission Electron Microscopy
    Best Resolution & Magnification

    • Mag - 1,000,000x
    • Res - 0.5nm
  22. Gram Negative Cell Wall
    • - Thinner outer membrane
    • - LPS (lipopolysaccharide/endotoxin) layer
    • - More lipids
    • - Less peptide cross linking
    • - Periplasm (space between OM & CW)
    • - OM contains porins (transmembrane protiens)
  23. Phase Contrast Microscopy
    Shows Internal Details

    • Mag - 2000x
    • Res - 0.2u
  24. Gram Positive Cell Wall
    • - Thick
    • - Contains techoic acid
    • - More peptide cross linking
  25. Dark-Field Microscopy
    Best for live specimens

    • Mag - 2000x
    • Res - 0.2u
  26. Endospores
    Means of survival for prokaryotes, not reproduction
  27. Capsule
    Property of some bacteria which increase resistance against phagocytosis by leukocytes
  28. Bright-Field Microscopy
    Most Common

    • Mag - 2000x
    • Res - 0.2u
  29. Examples of how microbes are used in everyday aspects of our lives
    • - decompose organic waste
    • - produce industrial chemicals (Acetone, ethyl Alcohol)
    • - produce fermented foods (vinegar, cheese, alcohol)
    • - produce vitamins and hormones
    • - Pharmaceuticals
    • - Kill insects/pests
    • - Bioremediation (clean up oil spills)
    • - Remove dangerous radioactive elements
  30. Plasmid
    Extrachromosomal DNA of a bacterial cell
  31. Fimbriae
    Property of some bacterial cells which allow attachment of receptos to a host
  32. EIDs
    Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Ex: Bird Flu, West Nile, AIDS/HIV, Mad Cow
  33. Prokaryotic Ribosomes
    70S as opposed to 80S in eukaryotes (refers to density)

    Suseptable to antibiotics
  34. Immunology
    Study of the immune system in humans and animals
  35. Pili
    Property of some bacterial cells which transfers DNA from one cell to another

    Sex Pilus: allows 2 bacteria to conjugate (leads to "super bugs")
  36. Parisitology
    Study of parasites
  37. Mycology
    Study of Fungi
  38. Flagella
    Property of some bacterial cells which allows motility.

    Can be either internal or external
  39. External Flagella
    Is attached to a protein hook and anchored to the wall & membrane by the basal body
  40. Endoflagellum
    Wraps around the cell under the outer membrane in the pariplasmic space
  41. Nuclear Area
    Property of all bacteria which has no membrane and onlly a single chromosome
  42. Bacteriology
    Study of Bacteria
  43. Virology
    Study of Viruses
  44. 5 Disciplines of Microbiology
    • Bacteriology
    • Immunology
    • Mycology
    • Virology
    • Parisitology
  45. Berg
    He and his team developed methods for gene cloning and making recombinant DNA
  46. Cell Wall
    • NAM
    • NAG
    • Peptide Cross Links
  47. Inclusion
    Property of bacterial cell which is the source of energy or nutrition in the cytoplasm (metabolism)
  48. Cytoplasm
    Property of bacterial cell where functions of growth, metabolism and replication are carried out
  49. Plasma Membrane
    • -AKA Cell Membrane
    • - Phospholipid Bilayer
    • - Active transport of nutrients
  50. Shapes of Bacteria
    • Coccus: Round
    • bacillus: Rod
    • Vibrio: Curved
    • Spirillum: Corkscrew
    • Spirochete: Long Corkscrew
  51. Steps of a Gram Stain
    • 1. Apply crystal violet (purple dye)
    • 2. Apply Iodine (mordant)
    • 3. Alcohol Wash (decolorization)
    • 4. Apply safranin (counterstain)
  52. Edelman & Porter
    Deciphered the structure of antibody molecules
  53. Watson & Crick
    Deciphered stucture of DNA w/ an X-ray
  54. Frederich Griffith
    Discovered the process of transformation in bacteria where genes can be transfered from deal bacteria to live bacteria.

    Explained how bacteria acquire pathogenic traits

    Died in his lab during London bombing
  55. Alexander Fleming
    Discovered PCN
  56. Simple Stain
    • Acidic Dyes: chromophore is an anion or eosin
    • Basic Dyes: chromophore is a cation
  57. Acid Fast Stain
    Used on cells which retain a basic stain in the prescence of acid-alcohol
  58. Paul Ehrlich
    Passed immunity from one animal to another using serum from infected survivors

    Proposed humoral theory of immunity

    Dev. the treatment of syphillis
  59. Capsule Stain
    Special stain which uses negative staining
  60. Spore Stain
    Special stain which requires heat to drive the stain into the endospores
  61. Flagella Stain
    Special stain which requires a mordant to make flagella wide enough to see
  62. Refraction (microscopy)
    Bent light as a result of light moving from one medium to another

    Ex: moving from air to water or from glass to oil (microscopes)
  63. Ilya Mechnikov
    Discovered phagocytosis
  64. Emil VonBehring
    Discovered 1st bacterial toxin from Diptheria bacillus and developed an anti-toxin

    1st nobel prize in medicine (1901)
  65. Robert Koch
    Proved germs cause disease

    Studied TB and cholera

    Developed Koch's Postulate

    Refined Pure Culture Techniques
  66. Koch's Postulates
    Pure cultures obtained from diseased organisms which are introduced to healty organisms cause diease. Pure culture from newly infected (diseased) organism is identical to original culture
  67. Joseph Lister
    Developed techniques for aseptic surgery

    Grew 1st pure culture of S. lactisi
  68. Louis Pasteur
    Disproved theory of spontaneous generation using a swan neck flask

    Made vaccines against anthrax and rabies

    "Father of Microbiology"
  69. Edward Jenner
    In England, developed and used 1st vaccine in history - smallpox
  70. Anton can Leeuwenhook
    First to observe mircobes with elementary microscope

    Thought to have better than 20/20 vision
  71. Robert Hooke
    Using a simple microscope he observed cork and called the small structures cells.

    Designed iris lens used in cameras

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