Midterm.txt

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aalford
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10127
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Midterm.txt
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2010-03-12 08:03:39
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HIST 1112
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Enlightenment/Midterm Flashcards
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  1. Deductive Method
    • -things confirm the universal truth
    • -geocentric truth
  2. Inductive Method
    • -make a lot of observations and then generalize rules of nature.
    • -leads to scientific observation as a method
    • -Francis Bacon
  3. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
    • Danish Royal Astrologer
    • -telescope
  4. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
    -planetary elipses
  5. Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
    • -invented calculus
    • -theory of gravity
    • -Three Laws of Motion
  6. Yang Shwue
    • -thought of Europeans as inferior people, and referred to their new sciences and theories as "Ocean Learning"
    • -interested in astronomy and cartography for religious reasons
  7. Kokugaku
    • -“Native Studies”
    • -mono no aware : “awareness of things”
    • -Haiku & Tanka poetry
    • -Japanese culture = the “head”; other cultures = the “body”
  8. Thomas Hobbes
    • Leviathan 1651
    • • natural state of man
    • • ‘political science’
    • • inductive method
    • •man is a part of nature; mechanical and material
    • •Absolute leader needed to set order for the common good
    • •law and order, not tyranny
  9. John Locke
    • -Letter on Toleration 1689
    • -tabula rosa – “Clear slate”
    • - Man is rational and born equal before the law (slavery allowed)
    • -Natural State: Harmony and Equality
    • - people motivated by pleasure; avoid pain
  10. Voltaire
    • -Philosophes
    • -Candide 1759
    • -anti-clericalism
    • -Jean Calas case (1698 – 1762)
    • -religious intolerance
  11. Philosophes
    • -the intellectuals of the 18th century Enlightenment
    • -Few were primarily philosophers; rather they were publc intellecuals
    • who applied reason to the study of many areas of learning, including
    • philosophy, history, science, politics, economics and social issues
    • -They strongly endorsed progess and tolerance, and distrusted organized religion (most were deists) and feudal institutions
  12. Denis Diderot
    • -Encyclopedia 1751-1772
    • -first 2 vols. Banned
    • -17 total (25,000 copies sold)
  13. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • -On the Social Contract (1762)
    • -General Will
    • -Sovereign Power of Govt.
    • • in the people
    • • how to express it?
  14. Deism
    • •non-ritual religion
    • •based on REASON
    • •anti-Christianity superstitious
    • •God: the suffering
    • •God: the watchmaker
  15. Jethro Tull
    Seed drill
  16. James Watt
    Steam Power
  17. Laisses-faire
    • -free trade
    • -Adam Smith
  18. Sabots
    • -scab workers
    • -'sabotage'
    • -destroyed employer's equipment as a way of revolt
  19. Imperium
    • ~ an order
    • ~ a command
    • ~ the right to order
  20. Sepoys
    • -"soldiers"
    • -enforced British laws in India
  21. Extraterritoriality
    the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations
  22. Commando
  23. Lord Kitchener
    -British Commander in the Boer War
  24. Lothar von Trotha
    German commander in the Boer War
  25. Maxim gun
    -first machine gun; destroyed thousands in Battle Omdurman (1898)
  26. Meiji
    • -first emperor after imperial rule is restored in Japan
    • -"enlightened reign"
    • -'western achievements'
  27. Saigo Takamori
    -wanted to adopt Western technology and move against Korea with great force
  28. Satsuma Revolt
  29. Treaty of Kanghwa
    designed to open up Korea to Japanese trade
  30. Treaty of Shimonoseki
    China recognized the independence of Korea and renounced any claims to that country
  31. Portsmouth Treaty
    ends Russo-Japanese war and grants Japan the islands directly to the north
  32. Taft-Katsura agreement
    • - Korea goes to Japan
    • - Philippines goes to U.S.
    • -'protectorate status' 1905-1910
  33. Choson & Chosen
  34. Uibyong
    "righteous troops"
  35. Kempeitai
    military police
  36. Kokutai
    philosophy that Koreans and Japanese are one people
  37. Dreadnought
    British battleship; spurred global competition
  38. Futurist Manifesto
  39. Rupert Brooke
    • poet
    • wrote about WWI in more patriotic terms
  40. Gavrilo Princip
    assasinated Archduke Ferdinand on June 28, 1914
  41. “The Schlieffen Plan”
    Germany's plan to enter France through the "back door" by going around their traditional fighting grounds and entering through Belgium
  42. Passchendaele
    • July-November 1917
    • trench warfare is introduced
    • catastrophic amount of deaths
    • afterwards, the landscape in and around Passchendaele is almost unrecognizable
  43. Wilfred Owen
    WWI realist poet
  44. Siegfried Sassoon
    satirical, anti-war poet during WWI

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