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2011-09-12 18:16:14

Chapter: 18, 19
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  1. Alveoli
    functional units of the lung; the thin-walled chambers surrounded by networks of capillaries that are the site of respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen.
  2. Angle of Louis
    manubriosternal angle, the articulation of the manubrium and body of the sternum, continuous with the second rib.
  3. Apnea
    cessation of breathing.
  4. Bradypnea
    slow breathing, <10 breaths per minute, regular rate.
  5. Bronchiole
    one of the smaller respiratory passageways into which the segmental bronchi divide.
  6. Bronchovesicular
    the normal breath sound heard over major bronchi, characterized by moderate pitch and an equal duration of inspiration and expiration.
  7. Cilia
    millions of hairlike cells lining the tracheobronchial tree.
  8. Crackles
    (rales) abnormal, discontinuous, adventitious lung sounds heard on inspiration.
  9. Intercoastal Space
    space between the ribs.
  10. Dyspnea
    difficult, labored breathing.
  11. Fremitus
    a palpable vibration vibration from the spoken voice felt over the chest wall.
  12. Hyperventilation
    increased rate and depth of breathing.
  13. Tachypnea
    rapid, shallow breathing, >24 breaths per minute.
  14. Orthopnea
    ability to breathe easily only in an upright position.
  15. Percussion
    striking over the chest wall with short, sharp blows of the fingers to determine the size and density of the underlying organ.
  16. Rhonchi
    low-pitched, musical, snoring, adventitious lung sound caused by airflow obstruction from secretions.
  17. Apex of lung
    the rounded upper extremity of either lung.
  18. Vesicular
    the soft, low-pitched, normal breath sounds heard over peripheral lung fields.
  19. Xiphoid process
    sword-shaped lower tip of the sternum.
  20. Wheeze
    high-pitched, musical, squeaking adventitious lung sound.
  21. Apices
    plural of apex.
  22. Angina pectoris
    acute chest pain that occurs when myocardial demand exceeds its oxygen supply.
  23. Aortic valve
    the left semilunar valve separating the left ventricle and the aorta.
  24. Apex of heart
    tip of the heart pointing down toward the 5th left intercostal space.
  25. Apical impulse
    (point of maximal impulse, PMI) pulsation created as the left ventricle rotates against the chest wall during systole, normally at the 5th left intercostal space in the midclavicular line.
  26. Bell (stethoscope)
    cup-shaped endpiece used for soft, low-pitched heart sounds.
  27. Bradycardia
    slow heart rate, <50 beats per minute in the adult.
  28. Clubbing
    bulbous enlargement of distal phalanges of fingers and toes that occurs with chronic cyanotic heart and lung conditions.
  29. Cyanosis
    dusky blue mottling of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive amount of reduced hemoglobin in the blood.
  30. Diaphragm (stethoscope)
    flat endpiece of the stethoscope used for hearing relatively high-pitched heart soudns.
  31. Diastole
    the heart's filling phase.
  32. Dyspnea
    difficult, labored breathing.
  33. Edema
    swelling of legs or dependent body part due to increased interstitial fluid.
  34. Erb's point
    traditional ausculatory area in the 3rd left intercostal space.
  35. SI (first heart sound)
    occurs with closure of the atrioventricular (AV) valves signaling the beginning of systole.
  36. MCL (midclavicular line)
    imaginary vertical line bisecting the middle of the clavicle in each hemithorax.
  37. Mitral valve
    left AV valve separating the left atria and ventricle.
  38. Palpitation
    uncomfortabe awareness of rapid or irregular heart rate.
  39. Precordium
    area of the chest wall overlying the heart and great vessels.
  40. Pulmonic valve
    right semilunar valve separating the right ventricle and pulmonary artery.
  41. S2 (second heart sound)
    occurs with closure of the semilunar valves, aortic and pulmonic, and signals the end of systole.
  42. Syncope
    temporary loss of consciousness due to decreased cerebral blood flow (fainting), caused by ventricular asystole, pronounced bradycardia, or ventricular fibrillation.
  43. Systole
    the heart's pumping phase.
  44. Tachycardia
    rapid heart rate, >90 beats per minute in the adult.
  45. Base of heart
    broader area of heart's outline located at the 3rd right and left intercostal space.