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What is Physical Education?
A process of learning that uses physical activity as the catalyst.
_________ is the only curricular area in the school program that focuses on the development of skills necessary for lifelong physical activity.
What are some problems with Physical Education?
- Physical inactivity is at an all time high.
- Directly related to overweight and obesity.
- Decrease in human life expectancy.
- Decrease in quality of life, limit functionl independance.
-Increase in illnesses, poor health.
- Financial costs of overweight and obese related illnesses is > $150 billion.
Physical activity is NOT physical education!
What is Physical Activity?
Any bodily movement that increases energy expenditure and enhances fitness.
What are the domains of Physical Education?
1. Psychomotor domain
2. Cognitive domain
3. Affective domain
4. Social domain
What is the purpose of the Psychomotor domain?
- Unique to physical education.
- Development of neuromuscular (physical movement) and health, fitness, and performance-related skills.
What are some benefits of the Psychomotor domain?
- Helps control weight.
- Reduces risk of cardiovascular diseases.
- Reduces risk of type 2 diabetes.
- Reduces risk of some cancers.
-Strengthens bones and muscles.
- Increases mental health.
- Increases chance of living longer.
What ares some movement skills acociated with the Psychomotor domain?
What is a fitness skill acociated with the Psychomotor domain?
- cardiorespiratory endurance
What is the purpose of the Cognitive domain?
The development of thinking and knowledge-based skills.
What are some benefits of the Cognitive domain?
- Helps students become PE literate.
- Improves mental outcomes and functions.
- Higher fitness scores are associated with higher academic test scores.
- Increases blood flow to brain, resulting in improvements to mental alertness and intellectual functioning.
- Improvements in school attendance and behavior.
What is the purpose of the Affective domain?
Help students develop positive attitudes toward physical activities, along with the ability to work collaboratively and responsibly with others.
- appreciate and enjoy moving, playing, working toward better fitness.
What are some benefits of the Affective domain?
- Increases confidence and self-esteem.
- Natural psychological pick-me-up.
- Reduses stress, anxiety, and depression.
What is the purpose of the Social domain?
Develoment of appropriate social skills, such as teamwork, fair play, and cooperation.
What are some benefits of the Social domain?
- Enhances positive social interactions.
- Enhances appropriate game-play etiquette and behaviors (treating equipment and players with respect, playing fairly, etc.).
- Develops good sporting behaviors.
- Strengthen problem-solving and reasoning skills.
What is the purpose of Physical Education?
Develop physically educated individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and confidence to enjoy a lifetime of healthy physical activity.
What does NASPE stand for?
National Association for Sport and Physical Education
How many National Physical Education Standards are there?
What grades are the standards specific to?
What is the first NASPE standard?
Demonstartes competency in motor skills and movement patterns to perform a variety of physical activities.
What is the second NASPE standard?
Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to learning and performance of physical activities.
What is the third NASPE standard?
Participates regularly in physical activity.
What is the fourth NASPE standard?
Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.
What is the fifth NASPE standard?
Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings.
What is the sixth NASPE standard?
Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction.
What is philosophy?
Your beliefs and thoughts about what is true.
-the pursuit of fundamental truths and wisdom that will provide a clearer focus and understanding of what you do.
What are some physical benefits of being physically active?
- Controls weight by expending calories consumed each day.
- Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease by lowering blood pressure and improving cholesterol levels.
- Reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes.
- Reduces the risk of some cancers, including breast and colon cancers.
- Strengthens bones and muscles.
- Improves mental health and mood, especially with aerobic exercise.
- Increases chances of living longer.
Why is philosophy of physical education important?
- it provides instructional focus and direction in understanding the purpose and role of physical education.
- helps shape teaching values and clarify areas of emphasis.
What are the philosphy components?
- based on values.
- based on science.
What does it mean when philosophy is based on values?
- meaning, relevence, and importance.
- - values from religion or spirituality.
- - ex. right or wrong, good or bad, beautiful or unattractive, evolution vs. creation etc.
What does it mean when philosophy is based on science?
- logical outcomes and what makes sense.
- - past learning experiences and outcomes.
- - how you were taught, how you learned.
What are the factors in a teaching philosophy?
- present values
- successes and failures
- learning processes
- past experiences
- religion and spirituality
- ethics and morals
What are the philosophical ties with PE history?
- nationalistic philosophy
- muscular christianity
- new physical education
- playground and recreation movement
- fitness movement
What are the five traditional philosophical positions?
Whats is idealism?
- - the mind and knowledge.
- - teach the whys, teach the content.
- - testing is important.
- - physical activity is a secondary focus.
- - understanding self and character development.
- - development of moral and spiritual values.
- - demonstrating character, playing fair, ethical and moral choices, good sports, etc.
- - shape students to be the best people they can be.
What is realism?
- - evidence and proof are important.
- -if something can be proven and makes sense, it is true/real.
- - test results and assessments ( is the program and instruction worthwhile?)
- - learning progressions and process are important.
- -skill practice progressions lead to favorable outcomes.
- - demonstrate and learn part of skill then practice, followed by next part, etc.
What is pragmatism?
- - experience is important.
- - learn by doing.
- - developing social skills is important.
- - work within a democratic society.
- - develop problem-solving skills.
- - use cooperative activities to solve problems.
- - teacher guides or aides in helping students learn how to think (rather than what to think).
What is naturalism?
- - individual (natural) development is important.
- - based on personal interests and maturity (developmental needs of each student).
- - assess students on individual improvement.
- - mind and body experiences are important.
- - allows children to explore movements and select equipment to use according to their level of readiness.
- - competition is not generally advised.
What is existentialism?
- - individual learning process is most important.
- - learning is up to the student.
- - students select what they want to learn and do.
- - teacher offers a variety of individual or dual activities.
- - not much lesson planning or prep work, no real goals or objectives (make choice, holding accountable).
- - learning about oneself is most important.
- - student choices and consequences help develop responsibility.
Why teach PE philosophy?
- - a teaching philosophy supports what you think and do.
- - beliefs match what you practice and teach.
- - quality PE programs are traced to solid teaching philosophies.
PE has been around for as long as people have existed.
Began in Ancient Greece (800 - 300 BC)
- - extensive exercise was required for boys and men to help develop strong, dominating armies.
- girls exercised to bear strong, healthy children.
- boys attended private wrestling schools called palestras.
- men trained in public outdoor gymnasiums - focused on courage, strength, form, grace, well-proportioned physiques.
Renaissance and Age of Enlightenment
- preceded by dark ages (500 - 1000 AD) stagnant period of the early middle ages.
- - age of enlightenment resurrected a belief in the importance of physical activity and health.
- - reformation of education (concept of mind and soul).
-renaissance period- important to develop the mind as well as the body because they were interwined and interacting.
Early 1600s to 1700s
- - early New England colonists
- - puritan influence: Play was "snare of the devil".
- - history of games among native americans.
- - later colonization.
- -increased focus on education and play.
- Benjamin Franklin
: early proponent of physical activity for children.
- Thomas Jefferson
: physical exercise should be part of education.
Early American Period
Mid-1700s to 1900
- included american revolutionary war, civil war, great western expansion and reform, california gold rush, continental railroad
-suppression and disappearance of native american and southern slave dances, games, and traditions.
- emphasis on physical training and hygiene (especially for men- keep them strong so they could work hard).
- - development of systems.
- - german (Turnverein) system.
- - swedish system.
- - american systems.
German (turner) system of Gymnastics (1800s)
- - emphasis: developing strong, healthy men.
- - use of heavy handeled weights, calisthenics, and apparatuses (ropes, ladders, bars, rings, vaults).
- - endurance activities such as marching, running and swimming to music.
- - responsible for the initial construction of gymnasiums in the US.
- - Leaders:
- - Charles Follen: first college gym in the US (at Harvard college); first public gym in Boston.
- Francis Lieber
: opened first swimming school in the US.
- Charles Beck
: included PE as a part of school's educational program at the Round Hill school, Mass. (considered the first PE teacher in America).
Swedish system of Gymnastics (Late 1800s)
- - emphasis: therapeutic approach.
- - morescientific and therapeutic approach to gymnastics - develop heart and lungs through movement patterns (medical gymnastics).
- - hold movements on teacher's command (no music).
- - also used ladders, rings, bars, ropes.
- - Leaders:
- - Hartwig Nissen: director for boston schools.
- Nils Posse
: started the Posse Normal school (devoted to training teachers - later became colleges and departments at universities).
- Amy Morris Homans
: director of Normal school of Gymnastics.
When was the North America Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) founded?
- blend of religious influence and social civic service to the community.
When and where was the Young Women's Christian Association founded?
Boston in 1866
American systems and Leaders
- emphasis: modification of early systems and advancement in physical training and hygiene concepts.
- - Leaders:
- - Catherine Beecher's system:
- - calisthenics for girls and women to help develop good posture, strength, and grace.
- - less rigorous without excessive use of apparatuses.
- - movements to music.
- -Robert Roberts' system (YMCA):
- - balance and symmetry of muscles.
- - importance of daily hygiene and physical activity.
- - Dio Lewis's system:
- - exercises for everyone using weighted beanbags, wooden rings, wands, dumbbells, and clubs.
- - lighter weights and more repetitions.
- - Edward Hitchcock's system:
- - personalized hygiene program.
- - collected pre- and post-anthropometric measurments.
- - Dudley Sargent's system:
- - modified and developed exercise machines.
- - included individual remedial or corrective exercises.
- - developed Harvard Summer School for PE.
- -Delphine Hanna:
- - 35 years ar Oberlin College, Ohio.
- - first woman to use anthropometric measurments and corrective procedures in her PE program.
- - first woman appointed full professor in PE.
- - Oberlin College:
- - first college to offer a teacher prep program in PE for credit.
- - Adelphi conference in Brooklyn, 1885
- - association for the advancement of PE (AAPE), the birth of the national organization.
- - current American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Reacreation, and Dance. (AAHPERD).
- - Edward Hitchcock was elected the first president.
- - Boston conference, 1889
- - what should be the focus of physical education?
- - emphasis not on type of system to use, but about the results they want to accomplish, then selecting activities, techniques, and methods to reach those results.
Early 20th Century, 1900 to 1930
- - early emphasis
- - the new physical education: educate through the physical (develop the body, as well as the spirit and mind).
- - child-centered: allowing to learn from doing and experiencing life.
- - Leaders of the New Physical Education:
- - Thomas Wood: natural gymnastics.
- - Clark Hetherington: believed education should address these areas:
- 1. organic
- 2. psychomotor
- 3. character
- 4. intellectual
- Mabel Lee
: physical activity and sport for women.
- - Trends
- - Luther Gulick: outdoor and recreational education programs
- - playground movement.
- more four-year teacher prep programs
- prevalence of sports, games, and dance in PE programs.
- Increased scientific study of the effects of physical training.
Mid-20th Century, 1930 to 1970
- time of great depression, world war 2, cold war, and civil rights movement
- - issues
- - poor fitness levels of military
- - poor fitness levels of school-aged children (kraus-weber tests) vs. european children.
- - fitness tests in PE programs
- - youth fitness test by AAHPER, 1957.
- - president's physical fitness award program, 1966.
- - fitnessgram and president's challenge are the two most common fitness programs used nationwide today.
- - Leaders:
- - Jay Nash: outdoor education and recreation.
- Rosalind Cassidy
: movement education for children.
- Charles McCoy
: substantial research in physical education, impetus for future changes.
- - Trends
- - physical education emphases
- - sports, recreation, and lifetime activities.
- leaders were more likely to have PhDs and EdDs than to be medical doctors (MDs).
- advancement in research and fitness.
Late 20th Century, 1970 to 2000
- many believed PE should not be a required content area of the curriculum.
- - pressure for educational accountability
- - NASPE National standards for PE, 1995
- - shift to academic focus
- - emergence of sub-disciplines, more course offerings, and department name changes.
- - AAHPERD
- - dance was added to the alliance in 1979.
Development of Teaching Models
- Movement education model:
- - explore and refine fundamental movements
- -- expess, explore, develop, interpret the world.
- -- ex. running, hopping, skipping > various patterns (curved, zigzag) > (varying degrees (soft, hard) > time (fast, slow).
- Humanistic model
- - individualized - students were part of teaching-learning act ( teacher guides, students self-educate).
- - each student develops at his or her own pace.
- Concepts-based model
- - movement learned through sub-disciplined concepts
- -- exercise physiology, biomechanics, motor development, sport psychology, sport history
- - ex. force production taught during softball or golf.
- Resposibility model
- - Don Hellison developed to enhance personal and social skills of students (at-risk, troubled students).
- - responsibility levels for students to achieve.
- -- ex. respect others, being in control of own emotions and behaviors, willingness to try, work independently, help others.
- Sport education model
- - experience multifaceted aspects of sports.
- -- team chooses name, designates team roles, develop practice plans, scrimmage, compete in "seasons".
- Tactical games model
- - understand the tactics, or strategies, of how to play games.
- -- lead-up and modified games, tactical concepts - moving to open space to recieve a pass, offensive strategies, scoring sdvantages, etc.
- Cooperative model
- - group initiatives, ropes courses, outdoor adventure education.
- -- problem-solving, trust-building, climbing walls.
- Fitness education model
- - health-related fitness emphasis (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, body composition).
- - stress by teaching various physical activities that help students develop and improve their personal fitness levels.
currently use mile run, PACER, 1 mile walk, curl-ups, push-ups, trunk lifts, and the back-saver sit-and-reach.
Physical Fitness and Physical Activity Programs
- Charles Corbin
- - Fitness for Life
- SPARK: Sports, Play and Active Recreation for Kids
Title IX (1972)
- part of the Education Amendment Act
PL 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)
- handicapped children were mainstreamed in regular classrooms
- mandated that free and appropriate public education be available for all handicapped children
Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) (1990)
- all people with disabilities, not just handicapped children
- least restrictive environment
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) (1991)
- created to hold schools and teachers more accountable for helping students learn.
Early 21st Century to Present: Issues and Concerns
- Optional PE credit for graduation
- - interscholarship sports, JROTC, marching band, cheerleading
- Declining supply and demand for PETE programs
- - physical education teacher education; fewer doctoral programs > fewer professors > fewer qualified PE teachers.
- E-learning and online PE classes for credit
- - 22 states (43%) allow online PE credit (HS level).
- Finding value and demonstrating worthiness
- - connection between fitness and increases academic scores, better attendance, and decreased disciplinary issues.
- Trends TodayObesity epidemic plaguing the US
- - more overweight/obese people than any time in history.
- advances in technology
- - pedometers, heart rate monitors
- - exergaming (active video) in PE
- -- ex. wii fit
- curricular program shift to an emphasis on fitness (at all levels)
- - slowly removing traditional sports, games, dance, and outdoor and lifetime activities.
- Lesson planning and instruction
- - prep time to develop instructional aids, grade tests, plan upcoming lessons.
- positive role model
- - positive attitudes about students and teaching
- - positive values about being physically active
- - positive behaviors
- - positive appearance
- safety and liability
- - liability: a legal responsibility enforced by courts.
- - negligence: a tort (legal wrong)
- -- failure to act in a reasonable and responsible manner, often leading to injury.
- --types of negligence:
- --- nonfeasance: failure to do something that should have been done.
- --- misfeasance: wrongful action.
- --- malfeasance: illegal action.
- -- factors of negligence:
- --- duty: teacher has a legal duty to perform.
- --- breach of duty: teacher did not perform a legal duty.
- --- actual harm: physical or emotional injury results.
- --- proximate cause: breach of duty directly resulted in injury.
- - in loco parents: teachers act in the place of the parent.
- - standard of care: care that is within established standards of conduct.
Areas of Litigation in PE
- facilities and equipment
- first aid and emergency procedures
- transportation and field trips