Latin Dictionary Abbreviations .txt

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Latin Dictionary Abbreviations .txt
2011-09-12 19:19:12
Latin Grammer

Latin Dictionary Abbreviations
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  1. adj - adjective
    any member of a class of words that in many languages are distinguished in form, as partly in English by having comparative and superlative endings, or by functioning as modifiers of nouns, as good, wise, perfect.
  2. abl - ablative
    noting a case that has among its functions the indication of place from which or, as in Latin, place in which, manner, means, instrument, or agent.
  3. acc - accusative
    noting a case whose distinctive function is to indicate the direct object of a verb or the object of certain prepositions.
  4. adv - adverb
    any member of a class of words that in many languages are distinguished in form, as partly in English by the ending -ly, or by functioning as modifiers of verbs or clauses.
  5. AGR - agriculture
    the science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farming.
  6. ARCH - architecture
    the profession of designing buildings, open areas, communities, and other artificial constructions and environments, usually with some regard to aesthetic effect.
  7. art - article
    any member of a small class of words, or, as in Swedish or Romanian, affixes, found in certain languages, as English, French, and Arabic, that are linked to nouns and that typically have a grammatical function identifying the noun as a noun rather than describing it. In English the definite article is the, the indefinite article is a or an, and their force is generally to impart specificity to the noun or to single out the referent from the class named by the noun.
  8. ASTR - astronomy
    the science that deals with the material universe beyond the earth's atmosphere.
  9. AUG - augury
    prophetic divining of the future by observation of natural phenomena-particularly the behaviour of birds and animals and the examination of their entrails and other parts, but also by scrutiny of man-made objects and situations. The term derives from the official Roman augurs, whose constitutional function was not to foretell the future but to discover whether or not the gods approved of a proposed course of action, especially political or military. Two types of divinatory sign, or omen, were recognized: the most important was that deliberately watched for, such as lightning, thunder, flights and cries of birds, or the pecking behaviour of sacred chickens; of less moment was that which occurred casually, such as the unexpected appearance of animals sacred to the gods-the bear (Artemis), wolf (Apollo), eagle (Zeus), serpent (Asclepius), and owl (Minerva), for instance-or such other mundane signs as the accidental spilling of salt, sneezing, stumbling, or the creaking of furniture.
  10. COMM - business
    an interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale between different countries (foreign commerce) or between different parts of the same country (domestic commerce); trade; business.
  11. CIRCS - circumstances
    a condition, detail, part, or attribute, with respect to time, place, manner,agent, etc., that accompanies, determines, or modifies a fact or event; a modifying or influencing factor
  12. compar - comparative
    denoting the form of an adjective that indicates that the quality denoted is possessed to a greater extent. In English the comparative form of an adjective is usually marked by the suffix -er or the word more
  13. conj - conjunction
  14. any member of a small class of words distinguished in many languages by their function as connectors between words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, as and, because, but, however.
  15. cpd - compound
    composed of two or more words that are otherwise unaltered
  16. dat - dative
    noting a case having as a distinctive function indication of the indirect object of a verb or the object of certain prepositions.
  17. defec - defective
    (of an inflected word or its inflection) lacking one or more of the inflected forms proper to most words of the same class in the language, as English must, which occurs only in the present tense.
  18. ECCL - ecclesiastical
    of or pertaining to the church or the clergy; churchly; clerical; not secular.
  19. esp - especially
    particularly; exceptionally; markedly:
  20. excl - exclamatory
    using, containing, or expressing exclamation
  21. f - feminine
    a noun or other element in or marking the feminine gender
  22. fig - figurative
    of the nature of or involving a figure of speech, especially a metaphor; metaphorical and not literal
  23. fut - future
    • Grammar .
    • a. the future tense.
    • b. another future formation or construction.
    • c. a form in the future, as He will come.
  24. gen - genitive
    noting a case of nouns, pronouns, or adjectives, used primarily to express possession, measure, or origin
  25. GEOG - geography
    the science dealing with the areal differentiation of the earth's surface, as shown in the character, arrangement, and interrelations over the world of such elements as climate, elevation, soil, vegetation, population, land use, industries, or states, and of the unit areas formed by the complex of these individual elements.
  26. GRAM - grammar
    The rules for standard use of words. A grammar is also a system for classifying and analyzing the elements of language
  27. impers - impersonal
    (of a verb) having only third person singular forms and rarely if ever accompanied by an expressed subject, as Latin pluit “it is raining,”
  28. imperf - imperfect
    noting action or state still in process at some temporal point of reference, particularly in the past.

    a form in the imperfect, as Latin portābam, “I was carrying.”
  29. impv - imperative
    noting or pertaining to the mood of the verb used in commands, requests, etc., as in Listen! Go!
  30. indecl - indeclinable
    not capable of being declined; having no inflected forms: used especially of a word belonging to a form class most of whose members are declined, as the Latin adjective decem, “ten.”
  31. indic - indicative
    noting or pertaining to the mood of the verb used for ordinary objective statements, questions, etc., as the verb plays in John plays football.
  32. inf - informal
    characterizing the second singular pronominal or verbal form, or its use, in certain languages
  33. infin - infinitive
    the simple or basic form of the verb, as come, take, eat, be, used after auxiliary verbs, as in I didn't come, He must be, or this simple form preceded by a function word, as to in I want to eat.
  34. interj - interjection
    • Grammar .
    • a. any member of a class of words expressing emotion, distinguished in most languages by their use in grammatical isolation, as Hey! Oh! Ouch! Ugh!
    • b. any other word or expression so used, as Good grief! Indeed!
  35. interrog - interrogative
    forming, constituting, or used in or to form a question.
  36. LIT - literature
    written material such as poetry, novels, essays, etc, esp works of imagination characterized by excellence of style and expression and by themes of general or enduring interest
  37. loc - locative
    (in certain inflected languages) noting a case whose distinctive function is to indicate place in or at which, as Latin domī “at home.”
  38. m - masculine
    a noun or other element in or marking the masculine gender
  39. MATH - mathematics
    the systematic treatment of magnitude, relationships between figures and forms, and relations between quantities expressed symbolically.
  40. MED - medicine
    the art or science of restoring or preserving health or due physical condition, as by means of drugs, surgical operations or appliances, or manipulations: often divided into medicine proper, surgery, and obstetrics.
  41. MIL - military
    • a. the military establishment of a nation; the armed forces.
    • b. military personnel, especially commissioned officers, taken collectively: the bar, the press, and the military.
  42. mod - modern
    that which is near to or characteristic of the present as contrasted with any other time.
  43. n - noun
    a word or group of words that refers to a person, place, or thing
  44. NAUT - nautical
    of or pertaining to sailors, ships, or navigation
  45. neg - negative
    expressing or meaning a refusal or denial
  46. nom - nominative
    noting a case having as its function the indication of the subject of a finite verb, as in Latin Nauta bonus est “The sailor is good,” with nauta “sailor” in the nominative case.
  47. nt - neuter
  48. noting or pertaining to a gender that refers to things classed as neither masculine nor feminine
  49. num - numeral
    a word, letter, symbol, or figure, etc., expressing a number
  50. occ - occasionally
    at times; from time to time; now and then.
  51. p - participle
    an adjective or complement to certain auxiliaries that is regularly derived from the verb in many languages and refers to participation in the action or state of the verb; a verbal form used as an adjective. It does not specify person or number in English, but may have a subject or object, show tense, etc., as burning, in a burning candle, or devoted in his devoted friend.
  52. pass - passive
    a passive verb
  53. perf - perfect
    conforming absolutely to the description or definition of an ideal type
  54. perh - perhaps
    maybe; possibly:(as sentence modifier)
  55. pers - person
    a human being, whether man, woman, or child
  56. PHILOS - philosophy
    the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.
  57. pl - plural
    noting or pertaining to a member of the category of number, found in many languages, indicating that a word has more than one referent
  58. POL - politics
    the science or art of political government
  59. ppa - perfect participle active
    a word that shares some characteristics of both verbs and adjectives in the active voice
  60. ppp - perfect participle passive
    a word that shares some characteristics of both verbs and adjectives in the passive voice
  61. prep - preposition
    any member of a class of words found in many languages that are used before nouns, pronouns, or other substantives to form phrases functioning as modifiers of verbs, nouns, or adjectives, and that typically express a spatial, temporal, or other relationship, as in, on, by, to, since.
  62. pres - present
    being, existing, or occurring at this time or now;
  63. pron - pronoun
    any member of a small class of words found in many languages that are used as replacements or substitutes for nouns and noun phrases, and that have very general reference, as I, you, he, this, who, what.
  64. prop - properly
    adapted or appropriate to the purpose or circumstances; fit; suitable
  65. PROV - proverb
    a word that can substitute for a verb or verb phrase, as do in They never attend board meetings, but we do regularly.
  66. relat - relative
    a person who is connected with another or others by blood or marriage.
  67. RHET - rhetoric
    the art or science of all specialized literary uses of language in prose or verse, including the figures of speech.
  68. sg - singular
    being the only one of its kind
  69. sim - similarly
    having a likeness or resemblance, especially in a general way:
  70. subj - subjunctive
    noting or pertaining to a mood or mode of the verb that may be used for subjective, doubtful, hypothetical, or grammatically subordinate statements or questions, as the mood of be in if this be treason.
  71. superl - superlative
    of, pertaining to, or noting the highest degree of the comparison of adjectives and adverbs, as smallest, best, and most carefully
  72. THEAT - theatre
    writing that is suitable for dramatic presentation
  73. UNIV - university
    an institution of learning of the highest level, having a college of liberal arts and a program of graduate studies together with several professional schools,
  74. usu - usually
    habitual or customary:
  75. vi - intransitive verb
    a verb that indicates a complete action without being accompanied by a direct object, as sit or lie
  76. voc - vocative
    noting or pertaining to a case used to indicate that a noun refers to a person or thing being addressed.
  77. vt - transitive verb
    a verb accompanied by a direct object and from which a passive can be formed, as deny, rectify, elect.