Bacterial Survey

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SeanOHair
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101325
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Bacterial Survey
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2011-09-26 16:58:36
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Micro 150 Crafton Hills College
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Study cards based on the handout packet of Prof. Shimeld
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  1. Spirochetes are Gram?
    Negative
  2. Spirochetes motility method?
    Axial Filament
  3. How do you view a spirochete?
    Flourescent stain and view in a Dark Field microscope
  4. Treponema pallidum causes?
    Syphilis
  5. Treponema pallidum is a?
    Spirochete
  6. Borrelia recurrentis causes?
    Relapsing fever
  7. Borrelia recurrentis is a?
    Spirochete
  8. Leptospira sp. causes?
    Leptospirosis
  9. Leptospira sp. are?
    Spirochetes
  10. Borrelia bergdorferi causes?
    Lyme disease
  11. Borrelia bergdorferi is a?
    Spirochete
  12. How do helical/vibrioid G- bacteria feel about O2?
    They are aerobic or microaerophilic (like slightly lower concentrations than in air)
  13. Camphylobacter fetus is what kind of bacterium?
    Helical (spiral) G-
  14. Camphylobacter fetus causes?
    Domestic animal abortions
  15. Bdellovibrio sp. are what kind of bacteria?
    Vibrioid G-
  16. Bdellovibrio sp. causes?
    Kills other bacteria
  17. Legionella pneumophilia is what kind of bacterium?
    G- aerobic rod
  18. Legionella pneumophilia causes?
    Legionnaire's disease
  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is what kind of bacterium?
    G- aerobic rod
  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes?
    Opportunistic infections, usually nosocomial or ear infections
  21. Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces what unique symptom?
    Bluish pus from production of pyocyanin pigment
  22. Bordetella pertussis is what kind of bacterium?
    G- aerobic rod
  23. Bordetella pertussis causes?
    Pertussis (whooping cough)
  24. Brucella sp. are what kind of bacteria?
    G- aerobic coccobacilli (and they are obligate mammalian parasites)
  25. Brucella sp. cause?
    Brucellosis (undulant fever) acquired from unpasteurized milk
  26. What is one reason Brucella sp. are medically important?
    Ability to survive phagocytosis
  27. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is what kind of bacterium?
    G- aerobic diplococcus
  28. Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes?
    Gonorrhoea (STD)
  29. Falcultatively anaerobic G- rods generally live where?
    The GI tract
  30. Enterobacteriaceae sp. are all closely related and, therefore, are distinguished by?
    Metabolic activity
  31. Escherichia coli is what kind of bacterium?
    Facultatively anaerobic G- rod (but this rod is so short it almost looks like a coccus in microscopy)
  32. Escherichia coli causes?
    Most strains are non-pathogenic, but some produce enterotoxins that cause Traveller's diarrhea (Montezuma's revenge).
  33. Escherichia coli is used how?
    Most commonly studied microbe in the lab (especially in genetic studies) and its presence in drinking water indicates sewage contamination.
  34. What strain of E. coli is most worrisome?
    E. coli O157:H7
  35. Salmonella typhi is what kind of bacterium?
    Falcultatively anaerobic G- rod
  36. Salmonella typhi causes?
    Typhoid fever
  37. Shigella sonnei is what kind of bacterium?
    Falcultatively anaerobic G- rod
  38. Shigella sonnei causes?
    Shigellosis (aka: bacillary dysentery)
  39. Serratia marcescens is what kind of bacterium?
    Facultatively anaerobic G- rod
  40. Serratia marcescens causes?
    RTI's and UTI's (it tends to be found on catheters and supposedly sterile irrigation solutions)
  41. Proteus spp. are what kind of bacteria?
    Facultatively anaeobic G- rods
  42. Proteus spp. cause?
    Wound, burn, and urinary infections
  43. Enterobacter spp. are what kind of bacteria?
    Facultatively anaerobic G- rods
  44. Enterobacter spp. cause?
    Wound and burn infections
  45. Klebsiella pneumoniae is what kind of bacterium?
    Facultatively anaerobic G- rod
  46. Klebsiella pneumoniae causes?
    Pneumonia
  47. Vibrio cholera is what kind of baterium?
    Facultatively anaerobic G- slightly-curved rod
  48. Vibrio cholera causes?
    Asiatic cholera
  49. Yersinia pestis is what kind of bacterium?
    Facultatively anaerobic G- rods
  50. Yersinia pestis causes?
    Two forms of plague:

    • 1. Bubonic (affecting lymph nodes)
    • 2. Pneumonic (affecting lungs and bloodstream)
  51. Rickettsias and chlamydias are Gram?
    G-
  52. Rickettsias and chlamydias are what kind of parasites?
    Obligate intracellular parasites
  53. What is the major difference between rickettsias and chlamydias?
    Rickettsias are transmitted via arthropods
  54. Rickettsia prowanzekii causes?
    Epidemic typhus
  55. What is the vector for Rickettsia prowanzekii?
    Ticks or lice
  56. Rickettsia rickettsii causes?
    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  57. What is the vector for Rickettsia rickettsii?
    Ticks
  58. Coxiella burnetti is what kind of bacterium?
    Rickettsia (it has actually been reclassified, but it acts a lot like a rickettsia)
  59. Coxiella burnetti causes?
    Q fever (respiratory illness)
  60. Most common vector for Coxiella burnetti?
    Aerosol inhalation or contaminated milk
  61. Why is Coxiella burnetti technically not a rickettsia?
    It has no arthropod vector (although it has an arthropod carrier)
  62. Coxiella burnetti is Gram?
    G-
  63. Chlamydia trachomatis is Gram?
    G-
  64. Chlamydia trachomatis causes?
    Non-gonococcal urethritis (STD)
  65. Name the stages in the life cycle of Chlamydia trachomatis.
    Reticulate body and Elementary body
  66. What is the vegetative form of Chlamydia trachomatis?
    The reticulate body
  67. What is the infectious form of Chlamydia trachomatis?
    The elementary body
  68. What is the unique characteristic of mycoplasmas?
    They have no cell wall and are, therefore, pleomorphic (many shapes)
  69. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is Gram?
    The Gram stain is not valid (mycoplasmas have no cell wall)
  70. Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes?
    PAP or Primary Atypical Pneumonia (Walking pneumonia)
  71. Where are some places G+ cocci are normally found?
    Soil, skin, mucous membranes, and skin glands
  72. Staphylococcus aureus is what kind of bacterium?
    G+ mass of spheres
  73. Staphylococcus aureus causes?
    Toxic Shock Syndrome
  74. When grown on blood agar, what color is Staphylococcus aureus?
    Pale yellow / gold
  75. Staphylococcus epidermidis is what kind of bacterium?
    G+ mass of spheres
  76. Staphylococcus epidermidis causes?
    S. epi is normal skin flora but may cause localized infection if it gets somewhere it shouldn't be (opportunistic pathogen)
  77. Streptococcus pneumoniae is what kind of bacterium?
    G+ chain of spheres (usually diploid)
  78. Streptococcus pyogenes is what kind of bacterium?
    G+ chain of spheres
  79. Streptococcus pyogenes causes?
    Peripheral fever, strep throat, rheumatic fever, and scarlet fever
  80. Pathogenic streps can produce what?
    Hemolysins
  81. What is a hemolysin?
    Enzyme that breaks down RBC's
  82. What types of hemolysins are there?
    Alpha (partial breakdown of the RBC's) and Beta (total breakdown of the RBC's)
  83. What effect do hemolysins produce on blood agar?
    Alpha hemolysins produce a greenish-tan color and Beta hemolysins turn the agar colorless.
  84. The Micrococcus spp. are what kind of bacteria?
    G+ spheres
  85. The Micrococcus spp. cause?
    Nothing, they are usually nonpathogenic.
  86. The Micrococcus spp. are known to produce what?
    Pigments (red, yellow, and orange)
  87. As a general rule of thumb, endospore formers belong to which genera?
    Bacillus and Clostridium
  88. Endospore formers are generally what kind of bacteria?
    G+ bacilli and cocci
  89. Bacillus anthracis is what kind of bacteria?
    Facultatively anaerobic G+ rod
  90. Bacillus anthracis causes?
    Anthrax
  91. Bacillus thuringensis is what kind of bacterium?
    G+ rod
  92. What does Bacillus thuringensis do that is useful?
    Produces crystalline insecticides
  93. Clostridium tetani is what kind of bacterium?
    G+ obligate anaerobic rod
  94. Clostridium tetani causes?
    Tetanus (via an endotoxin)
  95. Clostridium perfringens is what kind of bacterium?
    G+ obligate anaerobic rod
  96. Clostridium perfringens causes?
    Gas gangrene (can also be a cause of foodborne diarrhea)
  97. Clostridium botulinum is what kind of bacterium?
    G+ obligate anaerobic rod
  98. Clostridium botulinum causes?
    Botulism (via an exotoxin)
  99. The Mycobacterium spp. are what kind of bacteria?
    G+ aerobes
  100. What do Mycobacterium spp. resemble?
    Fungal growth
  101. What makes the Mycobacterium spp. stain acid-fast?
    Mycolic acid (lipid) in the cell wall
  102. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes?
    Tuberculosis
  103. Mycobacterium leprae causes?
    Leprosy
  104. What are the nocardioforms?
    Aerobic, acid-fast bacteria that cause a disease similar to TB
  105. What are the Archaeobacteria?
    Extremophiles that live in harsh environments (most primitive forms of bacteria)
  106. Actinomycetes are what kind of organism?
    Fungi
  107. How are Actinomycetes classified / organized in taxonomy?
    5 groups based upon location of spores and arrangement of the mycelium
  108. Where are Actinomycetes normally found?
    Soil
  109. How do Actinomycetes reproduce?
    Conidiospores (asexual spore), mostly
  110. Frankia sp. and Rhizobium spp. are what kind of organisms?
    Actinomycetes
  111. Frankia sp. and Rhizobium spp. are found where?
    Plant roots
  112. Frankia sp. and Rhizobium spp. do what?
    Fix nitrogen for plant roots
  113. Streptomycetes spp. are what kind of organism?
    Actinomycetes
  114. Streptomycetes spp. do what?
    Produce most commercial antibiotics

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