Animal Agrilculture

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  1. What is it called when a company controls most aspects of the business
    vertical integration
  2. what is the most vertically integrated industry
    • poultry
    • farmers control genetics, reproduction, nutrition,raising,
  3. what makes american farmers highly productive
    • free enterprise
    • good land and climate condition
    • educational system in agrilculture
    • products & services thru agribusiness
  4. whats the trend of farms and farmers
    fewer but larger farms owned and/or managed by fewer farmers
  5. what percentage of and is suited for agrilculture
  6. how do animals benefit humanity
    • provide food
    • add palatability to human diets
    • improved conservationof land resources
    • provide stability to food economy
    • provide pleasure as companions
  7. what countries have had an increase in animal products
    • china-doubled
    • japan
  8. what percentage of food is consumed away from home
  9. what are the essential amino acids
    • Phenylalanine
    • Valine
    • Threonine
    • Methionine
    • Arginine
    • Tryptophan
    • Histidine
    • Isoleucine
    • Leucine
    • Lysine
  10. what are non essential amino acids
    • alanine
    • aspartic acid
    • citrulline
    • cystine
    • glutamic acid
    • glycine
    • hydroxyproline
    • proline
    • serine
    • tyrosine
  11. Protein is the only nutrient that can do what
    perform regulatory,structure, and energy functions
  12. what are the 6 classes of nutrients
    • carbs
    • fats
    • proteins
    • minerals
    • water
    • vitamins
  13. _____ are from animals, as _____ are from plants.
    • fats
    • oils
  14. mechanical breakdown of feed into smaller particles by chewing
  15. when is salivation greatest
    during feeding,mastication, or re-mastication in ruminants
  16. roughage
    • low in energy
    • high in fiber
  17. concentrate
    • high in energy
    • low in fiber
  18. a product of less value than the major product
  19. what is a non ruminant
    farm animals possessing a single stomach
  20. what are some examples of non ruminants
    • swine
    • poultry
    • young ruminants that havn't yet developed a functional rumen
  21. food enters the stomach at the _____ and exits at the _____ ________
    • esophagus
    • small intestines
  22. folds in the stomach secrete mucus for what
    to protect the interior lining of the stomach
  23. what is the time frame that food substance tends to pass through the stomach in a non ruminant
    a few hours
  24. what is the effect of excessive levels of HCI
  25. concentrate feeds (low in fiber/high in energy) are for _______
    non ruminants
  26. if your feeding a ruminant your looking for feed with a __________
    high (NFE)nitrogen free extract
  27. ration formulation requires knowledge of
    • nutrition requirements
    • feeds and feed ingredients
    • palatability of feeds
    • availability and costs of ingredients
    • freedom from contaminants
    • quality of nutrient sources
  28. what is the most expensive portion of ration
  29. acceptance of food,which is influenced by taste and texture
  30. additives are tested by _______ and must be shown safe and effective before being approved
  31. some feeds contain antibiotics for _____, chemotherapeutics for _____, and anthelmentics for ____
    • inhibit growth of other microorganisms
    • chemically produced antibiotics
    • ctrl internal parasites
  32. when ruminants are restricted to low fiber/high energy rations (concentrated) what is the outcome
    they are less efficient then non ruminants
  33. removal of the compound being used to prevent detection in any animal product
    withdrawl period
  34. excess of one nutrient may interfere or work with another as far as efficiency
    nutrient interrelationship
  35. list some byproducts manufactured from ruminant animals
    • leather
    • wool
    • collagen
  36. ruminants have the ability to produce
    • essential amino acids
    • vitamin B complex
  37. what is so unique about the ruminants stomach
    the microbes they host primarily in the reticulo-rumen compartments of their stomach
  38. how many stomachs does a mature ruminant have
  39. which is the largest stomach compartment
  40. what are the names of the 4 ruminant stomachs
    • rumen
    • reticulum
    • omasum
    • abomasum
  41. what stomach is called the "true stomach"
  42. what assists in the breakdown of ingested products so nutrients can be absorbed by ruminant animal
    rumen microorganisms
  43. list a few ruminant animals
    • beef cow
    • cattle
    • sheep
  44. correctly formulating diets for ruminants depends on
    the specific phase their on in their life(pregnancy, growing, lactating)
  45. enterotoxemia
    condition when the rumen developes too much acid
  46. how does enterotoxemia occur
    imbalance in proportion of forage to concentrate in the ration
  47. in dairy cattle what is the desired forage to concentrate ratio for high producing cows
  48. what occurs in the 4th stomach abomasum
    enzymatic digestion
  49. what occurs in the 1st stomach rumen
    site of sctive microbial digestion
  50. what occurs in the 2nd stomach the reticulum
    bacterial digestion
  51. what occurs in the 3rd stomach Omasum
    recieves material from the reticularomasal orfice
  52. digestive pathway for nonruminants
    • mouth esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestines
    • large intestines
    • rectum
    • anus
  53. digestive pathway for poultry
    • mouth
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • gizzard
    • small intestines
    • large intestines
    • cloaca
    • vent
  54. disgestive pathway for ruminants
    • mouth
    • esophagus
    • reticulo-rumen
    • regurgatate & rechew
    • reticulo-rumen
    • omasum
    • abomasum
    • small intestines
    • large intestines & cecum
    • rectum
    • anus
  55. whats the end product of fermentation
    fatty acids
  56. why do ruminants regurgatate and rechew
    to reduce fibrous material and enhance digestion
  57. fat soluble vitamins are stored where
Card Set
Animal Agrilculture
module 1-5
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