KCC HIST151 MJohnson

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sylaramee
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101385
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KCC HIST151 MJohnson
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2011-09-19 21:01:02
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Midterm study definitions KCC HIST151 Michael Johnson
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Definition flashcards for midterm 1 HIST151 Fall 2011
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  1. Hominids
    • •Animals adapt themselves to environment
    • •Hominids adapt environment tothemselves
    • –Use of tools
    • –Language
    • –Develop complex cooperative social structures
  2. Neolithic
    • "New Stone Age"
    • •10,000 years ago
    • •Distinction in tool production
    • –Chipped vs. polished
    • •Transition to agriculture
    • –Domestication of animals (hunting => herding)
    • –Planting and irrigating (foraging => farming)
    • –Slash-and-and burn techniques
    • –Exhaustion of soil promotes migration
    • –Transport of crops from one region to another
  3. Sargon
    • Sargon of Akkad
    • • (2370-2315 BCE)
    • –Conquered Sumerian city-states
    • –Relied on personal power
    • –Unable to maintain due to chronic rebellions
  4. Samsara
    • The transmigration of souls by a continual process or rebirth.
    • (Reincarnation)
  5. Satraps
  6. Achaemenid Administration: The Satrapies
  7. •23 Administrative divisions
    • •Satraps Persian, but staff principally local
    • •System of spies, surprise audits
    • –Minimized possibilities of local rebellion
    • •Standardized currency for taxation purposes
  8. Hieroglyphys
    • •“Holy Inscriptions”
    • –Writing appeared at least by 3200 BCE
    • –Pictographic supplemented with symbols representing sounds and ideas
    • –Survives on monuments, buildings and sheets of papyrus
    • –Hieroglyphs for formal writing, hieratic script for everyday affairs used from 2600 BCE – 600 CE

    •Meroitic writing - flexible system borrowed from hieroglyphs, represents sounds rather than ideas
  9. Phoenicians
    • •City-states along Mediterranean coast after 3000 BCE (Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, Byblos)
    • •Extensive maritime trade
    • –Dominated Mediterranean trade, 1200-800 BCE
    • •Development of alphabet symbols
    • –Simpler alternative to cuneiform
    • –Spread of literacy
    • –22 symbols representing consonants
  10. Mohenjo-Daro
    • -Major planned city of Harappan society
    • -Mohenjo-Daro (mouth of Indus River)
    • •35,000 - 40,000 people
    • •Evidence of planning
    • –Fortified walls and citadel
    • –Central granary, marketplaces, temples
    • –Broad streets
    • –Sewage system
    • –Standardized weights and measurments
    • –Specialized labor
  11. Aryans
    • Indo-European invaders from the north
    • •Pastoral economy: sheep, goats, horses, cattle
    • •Did not use writing system
    • –Sanskrit: sacred language of oral traditions
    • –Pakrit: everyday language (develops into Hindi, Bengali, Urdu, etc.)
    • •The Vedas (wisdom)
    • –Earliest of orally transmitted religious traditions
    • –Consist of hymns, songs, prayers and rituals
    • –Four vedas composed between 1400 and 900 BCE
    • •Rig Veda – 1st veda
    • •1,028 hymns to gods
  12. Australopithecus
    • “southern ape”
    • •3.9 -1.7 million years ago
    • •Short, hairy, small brains
    • •Size: 3 ft tall, 55-120 lbs.
    • •Brain size = 500 cm3
    • •Walked upright, used basic tools.
    • •Limited speech, but opposable digit.
    • •Discovery of skeleton AL-288-1, at Hadar site (Lucy).
  13. Indo-European migrations
    • •4,000 – 1,000 BCE
    • •Language group
    • –Similar vocab in Europe, southwest Asia, India
    • •Originally from the steppes of Ukraine and Russia
    • •Domesticated horses
    • •Learned bronze metallurgy and wheel technology from Sumerians
    • •Military advantage allowed them to expand
  14. Mesopotamia
    • •Early Mesopotamia, 3000-2000 B.C.E.
    • •“Between the Rivers”
    • –Tigris and Euphrates
    • •Modern-day Iraq
    • •Cultural continuum of “fertile crescent”
    • •Sumerians the dominant people
  15. Zoroastrianism
    • •Early Aryan influences on Persian religious traditions
    • •Zarathustra (late 7th-early 6th c. BCE)
    • •Prophet of Ahura Mazda, against Angra Mainu
    • •Priests of Zarathustra known as Magi
    • •Oral teachings until Sasanid period composed Gathas
  16. Epic of Gilgamesh
    • •Epic of Gilgamesh, compiled after 2000 BCE
    • •Heroic saga
    • •Search for meaning, esp. afterlife
    • •This-worldly emphasis
  17. Pharaoh
    • •Claimed descent from the gods
    • •Absolute rulers, had slaves buried with them from 2600 BCE
    • The Pyramids
    • •Symbols of the pharaoh’s authority and divine status
    • •A testimony of the pharaohs’ ability to marshal Egypt’s resources
    • •Largest Khufu (Cheops) 2.3 M limestone blocks avg weight 2.5 tons
    • •Role: burial chambers for Pharaohs
  18. Ashurnasirpal II
    • (883-859 BCE)
    • •Ruled through terror
  19. Vedas
    • •The Vedas (wisdom)
    • –Earliest of orally transmitted religious traditions
    • –Consist of hymns, songs, prayers and rituals
    • –Four vedas composed between 1400 and 900 BCE
    • •Rig Veda – 1st veda
    • •1,028 hymns to gods
  20. Austronesian Migrations
    • •Sunda and Sahul
    • •Paleolithic migration to Australia at least 60,000 years ago
    • •Hunting and gathering continues in Australia
    • •Agriculture develops in Papua New Guinea in 4000 BCE
    • •4000 BCE – 700 CE
    • •Language group (Filipino, Indonesian, Malayan, Polynesian, Micronesian, Malagasy)
    • •Settled Bismarcks and Solomon Islands by sight sailing
    • --Used outrigger and double-hulled canoes to navigate open ocean.
  21. Paleolithic
    • Paleolithic Era (“Old Stone Age”)
    • •2.6 million – 10,000 years ago
    • •Nomadic existence
    • –Groups of 20-50
    • –Hunting and Gathering Society
    • •Hunting generally by men
    • •Gathering generally by women
    • –Communication skills help hunting:
    • •Animal skin disguises, stampeding tactics, development of weapons
    • •Ice ages (60,000 -15,000 years ago)
    • –Beringian Migration chasing large game (13,000 BCE)
    • Early
    • -----Paleolithic Settlements
    • •Natufian Society (13,500 BCE)
    • –Harvested wild wheat and antelope herds
    • •Jomon Society (10,000 – 3000 BCE)
    • –Harvested buckwheat and fished
    • •Chinook Society (3000 BCE – 1800 CE)
    • –Gathered berries/plants and fished salmon runs
  22. Hammurabi
    • Hammurabi of Babylon
    • •(1792-1750 BCE)
    • –Used local governors to maintain control of city-states
    • –Improved legislation and taxation
  23. Cuneiform
    • •“wedge-shaped”
    • –Preservation of documents on clay
    • –Declines from 400 BCE with spread of Greek alphabetic script

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