Physiology Ch1

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Physiology Ch1
2011-09-14 23:04:33
Physiology Ch1

Physiology Ch1
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  1. Homeostasis
    Maintaining constant internal conditions in body
  2. Biological Control System
    • Mechanism for sensing, interpreting, & correcting a drift away from homeostasis; includes:
    • Receptor
    • Integrative Center
    • Effector
  3. Negative Feedback
    When body senses chg from homeostasis & triggers a response that returns the variable to the set range; (chg is in opposite direction)
  4. Diff b/w set pt & where u actually are
    Error signal
  5. Fluid surrounding cell
    Interstitial Fluid
  6. Flow upward due to surface tension & adhesion
    Capillary action
  7. Sucrose =
    Glucose + Fructose
  8. Lactose =
    Galactose + Glucose
  9. Four types of lipids
    • Triglycerides
    • Phospholipids
    • Eicosanoids
    • Steroids
  10. Phospholipid makeup
    Lipid group (2 FA) + glycerol backbone + phosphate head group
  11. Pro-inflammatory FA chain that has signaling role
  12. Amino acid makeup
    Central carbon + amino group + carboxyl group (COOH) + residual group (R group)
  13. Primary structure of protein
    the order of AA, like straight sentence
  14. Secondary structure of protein
    if can pick up H+ or not; how AAs are attached to eachother by H bonds
  15. Quarternary structure of protein
    how diff subunits interact as a whole unit
  16. Nucleotide makeup
    Monosaccaride (5C) + phosphate group + "base"
  17. 2 ring bases
    Purines: Adenine & Guanine
  18. 1 ring bases
    Pyrimidines: Cytosine & Thymine & Uracil
  19. Law of Complementary Base Pairing
    # Purines = # Pyrimidines
  20. Integral proteins
    Physically in the membrane (a part of it)
  21. Transmembrane protein
    A part of membrane, & goes from one side to the other; forms channels which allow water or particles to pass
  22. Peripheral proteins
    outside of membrane, usually signaling
  23. Glycoproteins
    Labeled w/sugar trees which allow cells to recognize eachother, also involved in signaling
  24. Site of protein synthesis
    endoplasmic reticulum
  25. Organelle that packages molecs
    Golgi apparatus
  26. Organelle containes oxidative enzymes
  27. Makeup of chromatin
    DNA + histones
  28. Proteins that DNA is wound around to compact it
  29. DNA --> mRNA
  30. mRNA --> protein
  31. Strand that is copied (sense or anti-sense)
  32. DNA replication via (enzyme)
    DNA polymerase
  33. Transcription via (enzyme)
    RNA polymerase
  34. Where ribosomes are found
    Bound to endoplasmic reticulum or free
  35. Enzyme which binds P group to a molec
  36. Enzyme which removes P group from molec & deactivates it