Social Psychology

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Social Psychology
2011-09-12 23:28:42
social psychology

unit 1
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  1. Self-concept
    A person's answers to the question, "Who am I?"
  2. Self-schema
    Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information.
  3. Individualism
    The concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
  4. Collectivism
    Giving priority to the goals of one's groups (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
  5. Planning fallacy
    The tendency to underestimate how long it will thake to complete a task.
  6. Dual attitudes
    Differeing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Verbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit atttitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
  7. Self-serving bias
    The tendency yo percieve oneself favorably.
  8. False consensus effect
    The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors.
  9. False uniqueness effect
    The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and one's desirable or successful behaviors.
  10. Fundamental attribution error
    The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences on others' behavior. (Also called correspondence bias, because we so often see behavior as corresponding to a dispostition.)
  11. Attitude
    A belief and feeling that can predispose our response to something or someone.
  12. Role
    A set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave.
  13. Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
    The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
  14. Low-ball technique
    A tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante. People who recieve only the costly request are less likely to comly with it.
  15. Cognitive dissonance
    The tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. For example dissonence may occur when we realize that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons for favoring another.
  16. Self-perception theory
    The theory that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us-by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs.
  17. Persuasion
    The process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors.
  18. Peripheral route to persuasion
    Occurs when people are influences by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
  19. Central route to persuasion
    Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
  20. Credibility
    Believability. A credible communicator is percieved as both expert and trustworthy.
  21. Sleeper effect
    A delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it.
  22. Attractiveness
    Having qualities that appeal to an audience. An appealing communicator (often someone similar to the audience) is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference.
  23. Cult
    • (New religious movement)
    • A group typically characterized by (1) distinctive rituals and beliefs related to its devotion to a god or a person, (2) isolation from the surrounding "evil" culture, and (3) as charismatic leader. (a sect,m by contrast, is a spinoff from a major religion.)
  24. Attitude inoculation
    Exposing people to weak attacks on their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available