Anatomy & Physiology

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Anatomy & Physiology
2011-09-13 03:47:17

Study Guide #1
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  1. Vocabualry 1
    • anatomy-structure:where it is found, what it looks like, what it is made of
    • physiology-function:what it does
    • atoms-the smallest single unit of an element
    • compounds-any substance composed of two or more different element combined indefinite proportions
    • organelles-any permanent highly organized structure within a cell
    • cells-the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms that preform all the activities vital to life
    • tissues-any group of similar cells preforming a specific function
    • organs-any group of two or more tissues preforming a spacific function, usually has a recognizable shape
    • systems-any association of organs that have a common function
    • organism-any total living form, an individual
  2. 11 major systems of the human
    • integumentary system-external support and pretection of body. covering, sup & mov
    • skeletal system-internal support and flexible frameworkfor body movement; production of blood cells. sup & mov, internal trans
    • muscular system-body movement; production of body heat. sup & mov, control
    • nervous system-body orientation, coordination, and assimilation. control
    • respiration system-gaseous exchange between external enviroment and blood. inter trans, incoming substances
    • circulatory system-supply living cells of body with materials necessary to sustain life and removal of metabolic wastes from cells. inter trans, sup & mov
    • lymphatic system-body immunity; absorption of fats. inter trans, incom sub
    • excretory system-filtration of blood; maintenance of water and ionic balance within blood. excretion, inter trans, incom sub, control
    • endocrine system-control system for chemical functioning within body. control, sub & mov
    • digestive system-breakdown and absorption of food materials and elimation of mastes. inter trans, incom subs, excretion
    • male repro. system-production of male sex cells: transfer of sperm to reproductive system of female and nurture of offspring. repro, inter trans, incom sub
    • female repro system-production of female sex cells:recieve sperm from male:provide site for fertilization of ovum, implantation, and development of embryo and fetus: delivery of fetus and nurture of offspring
  3. Vocabulary 2
    • anatomical position-arms at side, toes, palms, and face forward
    • anterior-front
    • posterior-back
    • medial-toward the middle
    • lateral-toward the side
    • ipsilateral-on the same side
    • contralateral-on the opposite side
    • superior-upward
    • inferior-downward
    • proximal-toward themain part of the body
    • distal-away from themain part of the body
    • superficial-on or near the surface
    • deep-toward the inside, away from the surface
    • transverse-directly across the body or body part
    • sagittal-any longitudinal plane
  4. Human body cavities
    • cranial-the bony cavity formed by the cranium
    • nasal-the cavity of the nose
    • buccal-the cavity of the mouth
    • vertebral-the cavity containing the spiral cord
    • thoracic-the chest cavity
    • abdominal-the cavity inferior to the thoracic
    • pelvic-the cavity between the iliam crest
  5. Function of the Organelles
    • cell membrane-the outermost limits of the cell made of lipids and preteins
    • nucleus-the spherical organelle which contains the hereditory factors of the cell, the control center of the cell
    • nuclear membrane-the outermost limits of the nucleas which only lets ceryain substances in and out of the nucleus
    • nucleolus-the nonmembranous spherical body of DNA and RNA whithin the nucleas. it functions in the synthesis and storage of ribosomal RNA
    • chromatin-thread-like masses of DNA which are responsible for heredity
    • smooth ER-ER without ribosomes
    • rough ER-Er without ribosomes
    • ribosomes-granular masses found throughout the cytoplasm and on the ER where proteins are sythesized
    • golgi complex-4 to 8flattened chanuels stacked upon one another with expanded areas of their ends
    • lysosome-a single membrane sac containing powerful dijestive enzymes used to breakdown substances
    • mitochondria-the double membraned organelles responisble for the production of ATP
    • cytoskeleton-the complex internal structure of the cytoplasm consisting of microtubules
    • centrosome-the dense region around a pair of centrioles
    • vacuole-membranous sac responsible for temporary storage
  6. Mitosis
    • Interphase- 1.metabolic phase 2. chromosomes replicate
    • prophase- 1. nuclear membrane disappears 2. chromatin cells 3. spindle forms
    • metaphase- 1. chromosomes line up at the rquatorial plane 2. spindle fibers connect to centromeres
    • anaphase- 1. chromatids migrate to either end of the cell
    • telophase- 1. nuclear membranes reappear 2. spindle disappears 3. cell cleaves in two
  7. Describe
    • mitosis-one body cells with 46 chromosomes becomes two bodycells with 46 chromosomes each
    • meiosis-one gamete producing cell with 46 chromosomes becomes 4 gametes with 23 chromosomes each
    • cytokinesis-cell division of the cytoplasm
    • cancer-malignant tumor consisting of epithelial cells which never stop rapidly dividing
    • histology-the studyof tissues and their microscopic structure
    • epithelial-tisues that cover and line to protect
    • connective-tissues that connect and support the protect and store
    • muscular-tissue that moves and supports
    • nervous-sensory tissue theat conducts nerve impulses
    • matrix-the non-living materials of atissue, secreted by the tissues cells
    • solid-bone
    • fluid-blood plasma
    • fibrous-ligaments and tendons
    • gel-cartilage forming cells
  8. Describe Epithelium
    • squamous-scale-like
    • cuboidal-cube-like
    • columnar-column-like
    • pseudostratified columnar-columns of cuboidal and squamous epithelium
  9. 7 major functions of the human system
    • 1. covering
    • 2. support and movement
    • 3. incoming sunstances
    • 4. internal transport
    • 5. excretion
    • 6. control
    • 7. reproduction