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- Material and non-material products of a society (physical artifacts, foods, technology, customs, values...)
- Things you can see and touch, also thoughts, concepts, expectations, value system, etc.
- Mostly geographically based
- A learned cultural heritage shared by people of the same race or nationality.
- Tends to influence someone's identity to their culture.
- Part of self-concept that connects with membership in social groups (value we place on membership)
- How we see ourselves in relation to other people
2 Social Motives Associated with Social Identity
- Our desire to be included and to be apart of a group
- Our need for individualization and separatness (cultural motive)
- A group that differs from the dominate group in some respect-often connected to power structure.
- Based on our power structure
Schaefer's 5 Characteristics of a "Minority" (subordinate) group:
- Physical or cultural distinction
- Experience unequal treatment
- Ascribed membership (involuntary, most debated)
- Aware of subordinate status
- Practice endogamy (marry within the ppl group)
- (not all 5 have to be present, but the majority are needed).
According to Schaefer- who is considered a minority?
Any group that fits the majority of the characteristics (example- 4 out of 5).
- Belonging to two separate subordinate groups
- (can be "triple" or "quadraple")
- Attitude that one's own group, race, or society is superior to others
- (U.S. individuals are notorious for this. Usually unable to identifity factors that make a person vulnerable to unequal treatment.)
As defined by Allport-- thinking ill of others without sufficient warrent (thoughts and emotions)
Behavior that excludes individuals from rights (disenfranchized), opportunities or privileges (action)
What is the "Vicious Cycle" for Prejudice and Discrimination?
- Prejudice and discirmination begin
- As a result a group is disadvantaged
- Disadvantage is interpreted as inferiority
- Leading to renewed prejudice and discrimination
Robert Merton's 4 Categories of People
- All weather liberal (no prejudice, no discrimination)
- Reluctant liberal (no prejudice in thoughts, but will discriminate if they will benefit)
- Timid bigot (is prejudice in thoughts, but to timid to act upon it).
- Active bigot (is prejudice in thoughts, and active in their thoughts, very open about it)
How Can the Thoughts and Actions of others influence us?
- Truth is we are greatly influenced
- 1939 Clark Doll Experiment
- 1968 Jane Elliott's Experiment (Eye color)
Everything serves a function, when it ceases to serve a function it will be replaced.
Conflict and tension between systmes (power structure) look at who is benefitting and why
- Interactions are based on shared meaning and use of symbols (how we interpret)
- Connection with labeling theory and self-fulfilling prophecy
How do Stereotypes influence our thinking
- Always have some basis in reality
- (+) make world more stable and predictable
- (-) assume how others act and what they like
- (-) insist that others whould behave in certain ways
- (-) Result in inaccurate perceptions of other's behavior
Identify the attitudes, expectations, language, bahaviors and arrangements that oppress and marginalize.
The Unified Theory proposes that there are key forces behind ethnic relations
- Acts of discrimination
- Access to resources
- Sense of threat
- Prevalence of negative stereotypes
- Values of broader society
A Culture is a Bit like Eye Color
We all have colored eyes, but we can't see our own eye color without photos or reflections. It is invisible to us.
Learning your culture is called:
What is culture?
- how we sit
- carry things
- food laundry
- how a beach is used
- how the elderly fit in
- who qualifies as an elder
- reactions to animals
- street life
- action and thougths
- smile (meanings)
To assume an individual behaves or believes in a predetermined way is to:
The prime tail of cultural values travels through parents, parents:
Teach the language and demonstrate acceptable behavior.
Each culture uses festival and celebrations to:
Incultrate- to the celebration culture it is great, but outsiders may not understand the importance
Stories and entertainment also transmit cultural values, in traditional cultures:
Stories might be in the form of ritual dances, puppet shows, folklores
Sprots and games teach:
How to follow rules, teach competition, and teamwork
Language is another form of cultural transmitter, it not only enable communication, its very structure:
Viewing ones own culture as cent of the universe is called:
Lead to problems dealing with outsiders
Inventions lead to:
New behaviors that are passed down thru generations
Before travel and mass communciation:
Cultural values took at least 3 generations to establish
What are the 3 Obstacles to Inter-Cultural Understanding?
- To assume we're all alike
- To believe stereotypes
- To evaluate and hold one's own culture as more important
The lines that separate one culture from another:
Are based on social agreements
Cultures differ because:
Societies face different trials and problems.
No one is a bystander in society:
We either benefit or suffer in our interactions
What factors impact a person's perceptions and involvement in society?
- Social Identity
- Conscious and Unconscious aspects of identity
- Influence of context (makes a BIG distinction)
- Conflict and Opression (Romans 5:3-4)
- Micro relations (interactions differ based on our comfort level)
- Personality (interactions differ based on our comfort level)
Notice that Race is not listed as a prominent of what can influence behavior:
Race is a cultural concept, not a biological fact (there are not distinct genetic races of people)
"Races" have their difference in:
Learned behavior and learned beliefs about biological features
The Common Conceptions of race are based on:
Superficial features such as hair, skin color, eye shape, etc. NOT genetic uniqueness
The belief in races is generally used to jusitfy an unequal distribtuion of power, resources, and rights in a society.
Race, even though a flawed concept:
can not be ignored! People's respsonses to the race labels produces real social consequences (self-fulfilling)
Ethnicity emerges as
- Groups interact (social and political negotiation)
- Symbols become shared (meanings given to group attributes)
An ethnic category:
May take precedence over actual ethnic identity
- Ascribe an ethnic identity that the person may not have (confined socially)
- Require the professional to understand how individual's identify themselves, not simply look at the cultural groups to which they are exposed.
Types of Intercultural Adaptation
- Ghettoization and Isolation
- Nativistic Reactions
- Mediators and Middlemen (can function in seperate cultures)
- Multiculturalism and Globalism (this should be the goal of "helping" professions)
Minority Ethnic Identity Development
Research in 1970s on Black identity, and 1983 by Atkinson, Morten, and Sue
Minority Ethnic Identity Development Sequences
- Conformity/Acceptance/ Psychological Captivity
- Dissonance (a person stuck between knowing who they are vs. conforming to a group)
- Resistance and Encapsulation/Immersion (very prideful of their gourp membership/heritage. self-choice to be separated from the dominant culture)
- Introspection/Identity Clarification/Redefinition (A person who develops there own since of self. Able to think about conflcits that develop within their self)
- Internalization and Synergistic Awareness ( Someone is secure in their own identity, not worried about stereotyping, capable of cross-cultural competence)
Dominant Groups Development of Ethnic Awareness
- Research in the 1970's on Black Identity
- 1988 Ponterotto (Awareness, recognition, and responsiblity)
Majority Ethnic Awareness Development Stages
- Pre-Exposure/Contact: Limited view of other culture/subpopulations
- Exposure/Contact/Disintegration: Realization that people are treated differently. (Zealot-Paternalism: Right all wrongs, protective; Defensive-reintegration: wanting to withdrawal from the cultural encounter).
- Pseudo-Independence: Person who is very ethnocentric, but acknowledging people who have different cultural values, beliefs, etc.
- Autonomy/Intergration: Okay with who they are and okay with who other people are.
- Aspects of identity are constructed in the process of social interaction
- Individual's identity includes self-concept and cognitions
- Multicultural experiences lead to the development of new aspects of self and identity
Prejudice is the reason of fools
To recognize the insidious and pervasive power of prejudice is to take the first step toward defeating it.
Dr Jim Cole, Psychologist and Author
A preconceived opinion or feeling toward a group of individual not based on sound knowledge or reason. (this includes race, sex, ethnicity, religion, what you wear, you athletic abilities, where you live, your appearance, physical disabilities, and unfounded characterization).
- Extreme intolerance of any creed, belief, opinion
- The actions, prejudices, etc. of a bigot
To make a distinction in favor of or against a person on the basis of the group or class to which the person belongs, rather than according to merit; show partiality.
A simplified and standardized conception or image of a person, group, etc, held in common by members of a group
To dislike intensely or passionately; feel extreme aversion for or extreme hostility toward.
An action that is deemed injurious to the public welfare and is legally prohibited
A belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's race is superior.
A fair and permissive attitude toward those whose race, religion, nationality, etc., differ from one's own; freedom from bigotry.
Intolerance has been the curse of every age and state
Despite advances in science, technology and the understanding of human nature, prejudices based on race, class, nationalism, and religion....
have lead to the deaths of an estimated sixty two million peopel around the world during the last one hundred or so years.
Prejudice is the child of ignorance
What purpose do prejudices have for the people who harbor them?
Boost self-esteem, dealing with psychological conflicts, making sense of previous interactions.
Unwillingness or refusal to tolerate or respect contrary opinions or beliefs, persons of different races, backgrounds, etc.
Things that make up our FRAME include:
- History/Ancestral heritage
- Sexual Orientation
- Economic Class
- Neighborhood we grew up in
- Neighborhood we live in now
- Physical abilities
- Culture/Cultural traditions
F-Figure out the facts
Not just what is apparent to you, but all the facts, Seek more information, ask questions, and listen.
R-Reflect on Reality
Is it my reality or their reality? Am I looking at this through my FRAME or trying to see it through their FRAME?
A-Acknowledge and challenge assumptions
Think about your expectation and whether they are appropriate. Are you making assumptions based on your FRAME?
M- Maintain an open Mind
Just because someone else's FRAME differs from yours doesn't make them wrong. What can you learn from them? What can they learn from you? What do you have in common?
E-Expand you experience
Explore, expose yourself, and encounter differences; expand your comfort zone; increase your cultural competence.
- All the things that make up who we are and how we view situations.
- Made up of values we hold, our culture and background, and our life experiences.
Include things that we choose to do, as well as things we do not have any choice about or control over.