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What is the self?
A symbolic construct
What does the self reflect?
- Consciousness of our own identity
- Awareness that we exist as an individual, separate from other individuals
What is self awareness?
A psychological state in which people are aware of their traits, feelings and behaviors
Lewis and Brooks performed their study in what year?
What was Lewis and Brooks (1978) study?
- Put a spot of rouge on the nose of babies and then put them in front of a mirror
- Around 18 months, children recognized that the reflections was themselves
Where do scientists believe self awareness exists in the brain?
Prefrontal cortex in the anterior cingulate
What group of scientists researched biological correlates of self-perceptions and perspective taking?
Mitchell, Banaji, and Macrae (2005)
What are the two differences in temporary self awareness?
Private and public
What are some factors of private self awareness, discovered through different studies?
- Intensified emotional response
- Report with greater accuracy
- More likely to adhere to personal standards of behavior
What are some factors of public self awareness?
- Evaluation apprehension
- Adherence to social standards of behavior
What is a chronic differences in self awareness?
Having a self-conscious personality trait or not
If an individual is high in private self-consciousness, do they experience lowered or heightened self awareness?
If an individual is high in public self-consciousness how do they feel about others around them?
They are concerned with how they are perceived by others
What year did Scheier and Carver perform their self awareness study?
What study did Scheier and Carver (1977) perform?
- Private self awareness study
- Participants read aloud positive or negative statements
- Participants who looked in the mirror during this task were more privately self aware and had more extreme emotional responses than those who did not look in a mirror
How do individuals organize self knowledge?
With self schemas
What are self schemas?
How we expect ourselves to think, feel and behave in a particular situation
When do self schemas become active?
In relevant situations
What information do self schemas provide us in a situation?
How we should respond, based on our beliefs of who we are
What are self-schematic traits?
Traits important to our self concept
What are somewhat schematic traits?
Traits that describe our self to some extent
What are a-schematic traits?
Traits that do not describe our perception of our self
What are the theories of self-comparison?
- Self Regulation Theory
- Self Discrepancy Theory
What are the theories of individual comparison?
- Social Comparison Theory
- Self Evaluation Maintenance Model
What is the theory of group comparison?
Social Identity Approach
Who developed the control theory of self regulation (self regulation theory)?
Carver and Scheier, 1981
What is the self regulation theory?
We examine the self to assess whether we are meeting our personal goals
What is a good comparison in science to the self regulation theory?
- The scientific method - start with a self schema, test it, evaluate it, if it passes we move on, but if it doesn't we retest it
Who developed the self discrepancy theory?
What is the self discrepancy theory?
People are motivated to ensure that their actual self matches their ideal and ought self
Who developed the social comparison theory?
What is the social comparison theory?
We learn how to define the self by comparing ourselves to others through two different comparisons (upward and downward)
What are the two different comparisons employed in the social comparison theory?
Upward and downward
Who developed the self evaluation maintenance model?
What is the self-evaluation maintenance model?
When someone is more successful than us, it can have a negative effect on our self esteem, so we use self reflection and upward social comparisons to deal with it
What are the four levels of upward social comparison?
- 1. exaggerate the ability of successful target
- 2. change the target of comparison
- 3. distance the self from successful target
- 4. devalue the dimension of comparison
"They're just a genius so how can you compare them to normal people?" This is an example of what upward social comparison technique?
Exaggerating the ability of the successful target
"Yeah, anyway, forget about her, I did better than Briony, Phillip, and Tasmin" This is an example of what upward social comparison technique?
Changing the target of comparison
"She's a bit weird; we've got nothing in common at all! I think I'm going to avoid sitting near her in class..." This is an example of what type of upward social comparison?
Distancing the self from the successful target
"She may get better grades than me, but I have a much better social life. Being popular is much more important!" This is an example of what type of upward social comparison?
Devaluing the dimension of comparison
Tajfel and Turner developed what theory and in what year?
Social identity approach in 1979
What are the two important aspects of self in the social identity approach?
- Personal identity
- Social identity
Is the social identity approach applicable in every context, or is it context dependent?
What is the evaluative component of the self concept?
What is self esteem?
A person's subjective appraisal of him/herself as intrinsically positive or negative to some degree
Who's definition of self esteem is used in the book?
Sedikides and Gregg, 2003
Depending on the context we find ourselves in, what happens to our self esteem levels?
They vary from time to time
Are differences in self esteem acute, chronic or both?
What are consequences of low self esteem?
- Disability to adequately regulate mood
Wood et al. (2003) found out what about people with low self esteem?
They dampen positive feelings
Heimpel et al. (2002) found out what about people with low self esteem?
Following failure, the make fewer goals and plans to improve their mood
What is narcissism?
- Extremely high self esteem
- Very unstable/fragile self esteem
- Reliant on validation from others
What are positive characteristics of narcissism?
Initially likeable, extraverted, unlikely to suffer from depression and perform well in public
What are negative characteristics of narcissism?
Crave attention, overconfident, lack empathy
Who defined the positive and negative characteristics of narcissism?
Young and Pinksy in 2006
What are the self motives?
- Self assessment
- Self verification
- Self enhancement
Which self motivation is most important to us?
Who said self enhancement was the most important self motivation?
Who developed the self affirmation theory?
Mischel et al., 1975 developed what theory?
Self serving attribution bias
What is the self affirmation theory?
We respond to threatened self esteem by publicly affirming positive aspects of the self
What is the self serving attribution bias?
- Successes are attributed to internal characteristics
- Failures are attributed to external characteristics
- We have a memory for self enhancing information
What are different strategies to enhance the social self?
- Deriving a positive self image from their group memberships
- Holding a positive collective identity in a group
- Actions of low status group members to enhance themselves
What are strategies employed by low status group members to enhance their social self?
- Join a higher status group
- Social change strategies
- Social creativity strategies
What are cultural differences in self and identity?
Individualistic vs Collectivist
Are collectivist mindsets of the self still individual perceptions?
Yes, they are still individual perceptions dwelling in the mind
What is biculturalism?
Individuals who simultaneously hold two cultural identities, their original and the identity of their host society
What is the alternation model used in biculturalism?
- Individuals alter their cultural orientation depending on the situation (which culture they are immersed in at the time)
- Possible to have a sense of belonging in two cultures