Psychology

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Psychology
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2011-09-15 21:30:24
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  1. Psychology
    the discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment
  2. empirical
    relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement
  3. Critical thinking
    the ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote
  4. Ask Questions
    Define Your Terms
    Examine the Evidence
    Analyze Assumptions and Biases
    Avoid Emotional Reasoning
    Don’t Oversimplify
    Consider Other Interpretations
    Tolerate Uncertainty
    Essential Critical-Thinking Guidelines
  5. the study that assumes and attempts to interpret theinfluence of the heavenly bodies on human affairs.
    astrology
  6. the beliefthat certain mental faculties and character traits are indicated bythe configurations of the skull.
    phrenology
  7. the art of determining characteror personal characteristics from the form or features of thebody, especially of the face.
    physiognomy
  8. art of characterization and foretelling the future through the study of the palm
    palmistry
  9. study and analysis of handwriting
    graphology
  10. study of the purported mystical relationship between a count or measurement and life.
    numerology
  11. first psychologist
    • William Wundt
    • 1879
    • Germany
  12. -early 1970s
    - Analyzes the
    influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the
    two sexes
    Feminist Psychology
  13. -1960s
    -Emphasizes free will, personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential
    -behavior is not completely determined by either unconscious conflicts or the environment
    -Goal is to help people express themselves creatively and achieve their full potential
    Humanists Psychology
  14. the study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than
    for its practical application
    Basic psychology
  15. study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the
    application of psychological findings
    Applied psychology
  16. 1. Anyone who does any kind of psychotherapy
    2. Not legally regulated
    Psychotherapist
  17. 1.practices one particular form of therapy-psychoanalysis
    2. Must get specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute and undergo extensive
    psychoanalysis themselves
    Psychoanalyst
  18. 1.(M.D.) who has done a three-year residency in psychiatry to learn how to
    diagnose and treat mental disorders
    2. Some do research on mental problems instead of, or in addition to, working with patients
    3. In private practice, they may treat any kind of emotional disorder; in hospitals, they treat the most severe disorders, such as major depression &
    schizophrenia
    4. More likely to focus on possible biological causes of mental disorders and to treat these
    problems with medication
    5. Often uneducated in current psychological theories and methods
    Psychiatrist
  19. behavior based on the 4 humors: blood, black & yellow bile
    chemotypology
  20. conduct laboratory studies of:
    learning
    motivation
    emotion
    sensation
    perception
    physiology
    cognition
    Experimental psychologists
  21. study psychological principles that explain learning and search for ways to improve educational systems
    Educational psychologists
  22. study how people change and grow over time physically, mentally, and socially
    Developmental psychologists
  23. study behavior in the workplace, concerned with: group decision making
    employee morale
    work motivation
    productivity
    job stress
    personnel selection
    marketing strategies
    equipment design
    Industrial/organizational psychologists
  24. design and evaluate tests of :
    mental abilities
    aptitudes
    interests
    personality
    Psychometric psychologists
  25. goal is to understand and improve people’s physical and mental health
    Psychological practitioners
  26. help people deal with problems of everyday life, such as test anxiety, family conflicts, or low job
    motivation
    Counseling psychologists
  27. work with parents, teachers, and students to enhance students’ performance and resolve emotional difficulties
    School psychologists
  28. Diagnose, treat,and study mental or emotional problems
    Clinical psychologists
  29. beliefs that are taken for granted
    Assumptions
  30. when an assumption or belief keeps us form considering the evidence fairly
    Bias
  31. generalizing from personal experience or from a few examples to everyone
    argument by ancedote
  32. when faced with competing hypotheses that are equal in other respects, selecting the one that makes the fewest new assumptions
    Occam's razor
  33. focuses on the qualities that enable people to be:
    happy
    optimistic
    resilient in times of stress
    Positive psychology
  34. a scholarly project involving research that contributes to the knowledge of the fiield
    dissertation

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