BTNY301 Exam 1

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craigalangray
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101527
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BTNY301 Exam 1
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2011-09-13 20:57:24
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BTNY301 Review Exam
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Review for Exam 1
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  1. Stem rust of wheat
    • Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici
    • Oldest recorded plant disease
  2. Ergot of rye
    • Claviceps purpurea
    • Salem Witch Trials cause
  3. Brown spot of rice
    Bipolaris oryzae
  4. Potato late blight
    Phytophthora infestans
  5. Coffee rust
    • Hemileia vastatrix
    • Caused the Europeans to drink tea
    • biggest factor in price of coffee
  6. Chestnut blight
    • Cryphonectria parasitica
    • resulted in the Plant Quarantine Act of 1912
  7. Citrus canker
    • Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri
  8. What is disease? (6 qualifiers)
    • Caused by a pathogen: living biotic agent
    • Infectious & transmissible/contagious
    • Food relationship: all pathogens are parasites
    • Disrupts physiological process causing harm/death
    • Continual/progressive
    • Plants respond by onset of histological or morphological symptoms
  9. 6 types of organisms that cause plant diseases
    • Bacteria
    • Fungi
    • Viruses
    • Nematodes
    • Phytoplasmas/Mycoplasmas
    • Parasitic higher plants
  10. Biotic vs Abiotic causes of plant death
    Biotic: Biotic agent, infectious, transmissible, parasitic

    Abiotic: Nutrient deficiencies/toxcities, Physical injury or damage, Edaphic conditions
  11. 8 Disease SYMPTOMS
    • Leaf spots
    • Blights
    • Wilts
    • Cankers
    • Rots
    • Galls
    • Mosaics
    • Tissue Discoloration
  12. 6 Pathogen SIGNS
    • Mycelium
    • Fruiting bodies
    • Spores
    • Bacterial ooze
    • Eggs
    • Cysts
  13. Koch's Postulates (4)
    • Pathogen must be consistently associated with the diseased plants
    • Pathogen must be isolated in a pure culture
    • Disease must be reproduced in a healthy plant with the isolated organism
    • Same pathogen must be reisolated from the plant
  14. The Disease Triangle
    ENVIRONMENT PATHOGEN

    Favorability Abundance

    Duration Virulance

    Escapes Resistance

    HOST
  15. The Disease Cycle (6)
    • Overseasoning & Survival
    • Production of Inoculum
    • Dissemination of Inoculum
    • Inoculation of Plant and Prepenetration
    • Penetration and Ingress
    • Infection, Colonization, and ...
  16. Monocyclic Diseases
    & 3 examples
    • 1 cycle per season
    • Dutch elm disease
    • Verticillium wilt
    • Monosporascus root rot
  17. Dutch elm disease
    Ceratocyctis ulmi
  18. Verticillium wilt
    Verticillium albo-atrum
  19. Monosporascus root rot
    Monosporascus cannonballus
  20. Polycyclic diseases
    & 3 examples
    Multiple cycles per season

    • Coffee rust
    • Potato late blight
    • Apple scab
  21. Soybean rust
    Phakopsora pachyrhizi
  22. Apple scab
    Venturia inaequalis
  23. 5 "rights" for infection
    • Host
    • Inoculum
    • Infection court
    • Time
    • Environmental conditions
  24. 5 ways plant pathoges infect
    • Wounds
    • Naturan openings
    • Direct penetration
    • Stylets
    • Vectors
  25. 5 Direct penetration ways of pathogens
    • Adhesion
    • Germ tube
    • Appresorium
    • Infection peg
    • Haustorium
  26. Fire blight of Apple/Pear
    G, Flagella? Hosts?
    Symptoms? Infection Court?
    Management? Survival?
    • Erwinia amylovora
    • G neg rod, Peritrichous Apples/Pears
    • Rapid death of leaves, twigs; cankers on twigs/limbs
    • Nectarthodes/floowers, 2 via wounds, stomates
    • Tolerant cv, removal of infected, antibiotic or copper sprays
  27. Thomas Burrill
    • pear blight
    • first to establish bacteria could cause plant disease
  28. Erwin F Smith
    • Est reputation of US trained plant pathologists
    • 8th President of APS
  29. L R Jones
    • pectinolytic enzymes
    • 1st President of APS
  30. Bacterial Soft Rot
    G, Flagella? Hosts?
    Symptoms? Infection Court?
    Management? Survival?
    • Pectobacterium (E) carotovora
    • G neg rod, Peritrichous Soft fleshy tissue/manyplts
    • Watery, smelly rot
    • Wounds, natural openings
    • Avoind wounding, store at cool dry temps, chlorine dips
    • In hose tissue, soil, insects, tools, prop plant parts
  31. Crown Gall
    G, Flagella? Hosts?
    Infection Court?
    Survival?
    • Agrobacterium tumefaciens
    • G neg rod, Amphitrichous Dicots, 93 families
    • Only via fresh wounds
    • galls and rhizosphere soil
  32. Citrus canker
    G, Flagella? Hosts?
    Infection Court?
    • Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri
    • G neg rod, single polar flagellum #ous spec citrus
    • Req warm moist conditions, enters stomates & wounds
  33. Histological
    cellular level
  34. Father of Plant Pathology
    Heinrich Anton de Bary
  35. Hydrathode
    Specialized leaf structure used for guttation; leaf opening at terminus of vein.
  36. Hypertrophy vs Hyperplasia
    increase in size vs increase in numbers
  37. Tyloses
    Envaginations of hte xylem parenchyma cells resulting in 'balloon like structure' that blocks water flow.
  38. Xylella fastidiosa
    Plant transpires until it runs out of water
  39. Haustoria
    pushes in without rupturing the cell & absorbs nutrients so as to not kill the cell to quickly
  40. 5 ways pathogens survive
    • Oospores
    • Chlamydospores
    • Sclerotium
    • Cysts
    • Perithecia

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