281 Unit 2

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  1. Define stimulus (and receptor)
    • Stimulus – an energy change that affects an
    • organism through its receptors
  2. Receptor – an organism that converts enery
    changes in its environment into nerve impulses
  3. Why does Michael emphasize thenotion of “change” when talking about stimulus?
    Because it is often overlook inthe analysis of a more complex phenomenon
  4. Define response
    • The action of an organisms
    • effector
  5. Kinesis
    Fixed action pattern

    • An unlearned functional relation
    • between a stimulus condition and the speed of movement irrespective of
    • direction


    • An unlearned functional relation
    • between a stimulus and movement toward or away from the stimulus

    Fixed action pattern

    • An unlearned ridged sequence of
    • responses that once started, continues to occur regardless of the effects of
    • the separate responses on the environment.
  6. Learn the example of imprinting on
    • Duck will imprint to anything
    • medium sized and can be operantly conditioned to move away from the object
  7. Describe goal-directed behaviors from the perspective of control systemtheory.
    • Reference input -Thermostat
    • setting

    Comparator - Thermostat

    Action system - Furnace

    Output - Hot air

    Actual input - Air temp

    Distubance - Open window
  8. Describe the physiological aspect of reflexive behavior and be able torecognize/recall example of each.
    Sensory neurons detect stimuli

    • That info travels to the
    • interneurons

    • Interneurons send the info through
    • the spinal cord to the motor neurons which excite the muscle fibers causing a
    • reflex
  9. List the characteristics of a fixed action pattern and describe the role that a sign stimulus plays in this behavior.
    • It is a part of the repertoire of
    • all members of a species (may be species specific)

    • Bx is not the result of prior
    • learning

    • Bx has a rigid sequence that once
    • started, will complete regardless of if it is necessary in the current context

    • The sign stimulus initiates a
    • Fixed action pattern
  10. Distinguish Watson’s view regarding innate human abilities with that of Steven Pinker’s view.
    • Watson believed there were no
    • innate human abilities and that environment was the most impactful in
    • determining how people behave

    • Pinker believed humans had innate
    • abilities such as language and emotional expressions
  11. Discuss how language and emotion are used as supporting evidence ofinnate abilities in human beings.
    All kids babble

    • All cultures can correctly
    • identify emotions portrayed in pictures
  12. Distinguish between fixed action patterns and reaction chains and be able to recognize/recall examples of each.
    • FAP once initiated will continue
    • until completion

    • Reaction chains require an
    • external stimulus at each step in the sequence to continue until completion
  13. Distinguish between Brown’s human universals (1991) and innate behavioral characteristics.
    • Human universals unlike innate
    • bxal characteristics are influenced by learning and may have different
    • topographies or physical characteristic but they universally server the same
    • function

    Dance, music
  14. Define habituation and identify its characteristics and functions.
    • Decrease in strength of response
    • after repeated presentations of the stimulus that elicits that response

    It is stimulus specific

    • Habituation allows organisms to
    • disregard unimportant stimuli
  15. List and describe the 6 general principles of habituation.
    • Course of habituation – repeated
    • presentations of the stimulus brings large decreases in the response at first
    • and smaller decreases there after

    • Effect of time -Response will
    • recover if stimulus is withheld for some time.
    • The longer the absence the larger the response

    Relearning effect

    • After a period of time without
    • the stimulus, habituation upon representation will happen more rapidly

    Effect of stimulus intensity

    • Habituation occurs slower or not
    • at all with intense stimuli

    Occurs faster with weak stimuli

    Effects of overlearning

    • The more presentations of the
    • stimulus before the withholding period the and after there is no more
    • observable change in Bx the longer the retention of habituation

    Stimulus Generalization

    • Habituation generalizes to
    • similar stimuli
  16. Describe the opponent-process theory and apply it to the emotional response of a new or repeated stimulus.
    Two processes a and b

    • A is the initial reaction to stimuli
    • which is large

    • B kicks in later but stays high
    • longer which opposes a and bring emotional state back to baseline

    In repeated presentation

    • A
    • peaks but not as drastic

    • B immediately kicks in and has a
    • more drastic increase
  17. Identify the ways in which habituation is studied in human beings.
    Pets scans


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281 Unit 2
2011-09-14 00:10:23
281 Unit

281 Unit 2
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