281 Unit 2

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  1. Define stimulus (and receptor)
    • Stimulus – an energy change that affects an
    • organism through its receptors

    • Receptor – an organism that converts enery
    • changes in its environment into nerve impulses
  2. Why does Michael emphasize thenotion of “change” when talking about stimulus?
    Because it is often overlook inthe analysis of a more complex phenomenon
  3. Define response
    • The action of an organisms
    • effector
  4. Kinesis
    Fixed action pattern

    • An unlearned functional relation
    • between a stimulus condition and the speed of movement irrespective of
    • direction


    • An unlearned functional relation
    • between a stimulus and movement toward or away from the stimulus

    Fixed action pattern

    • An unlearned ridged sequence of
    • responses that once started, continues to occur regardless of the effects of
    • the separate responses on the environment.
  5. Learn the example of imprinting on
    • Duck will imprint to anything
    • medium sized and can be operantly conditioned to move away from the object
  6. Describe goal-directed behaviors from the perspective of control systemtheory.
    • Reference input -Thermostat
    • setting

    Comparator - Thermostat

    Action system - Furnace

    Output - Hot air

    Actual input - Air temp

    Distubance - Open window
  7. Describe the physiological aspect of reflexive behavior and be able torecognize/recall example of each.
    Sensory neurons detect stimuli

    • That info travels to the
    • interneurons

    • Interneurons send the info through
    • the spinal cord to the motor neurons which excite the muscle fibers causing a
    • reflex
  8. List the characteristics of a fixed action pattern and describe the role that a sign stimulus plays in this behavior.
    • It is a part of the repertoire of
    • all members of a species (may be species specific)

    • Bx is not the result of prior
    • learning

    • Bx has a rigid sequence that once
    • started, will complete regardless of if it is necessary in the current context

    • The sign stimulus initiates a
    • Fixed action pattern
  9. Distinguish Watson’s view regarding innate human abilities with that of Steven Pinker’s view.
    • Watson believed there were no
    • innate human abilities and that environment was the most impactful in
    • determining how people behave

    • Pinker believed humans had innate
    • abilities such as language and emotional expressions
  10. Discuss how language and emotion are used as supporting evidence ofinnate abilities in human beings.
    All kids babble

    • All cultures can correctly
    • identify emotions portrayed in pictures
  11. Distinguish between fixed action patterns and reaction chains and be able to recognize/recall examples of each.
    • FAP once initiated will continue
    • until completion

    • Reaction chains require an
    • external stimulus at each step in the sequence to continue until completion
  12. Distinguish between Brown’s human universals (1991) and innate behavioral characteristics.
    • Human universals unlike innate
    • bxal characteristics are influenced by learning and may have different
    • topographies or physical characteristic but they universally server the same
    • function

    Dance, music
  13. Define habituation and identify its characteristics and functions.
    • Decrease in strength of response
    • after repeated presentations of the stimulus that elicits that response

    It is stimulus specific

    • Habituation allows organisms to
    • disregard unimportant stimuli
  14. List and describe the 6 general principles of habituation.
    • Course of habituation – repeated
    • presentations of the stimulus brings large decreases in the response at first
    • and smaller decreases there after

    • Effect of time -Response will
    • recover if stimulus is withheld for some time.
    • The longer the absence the larger the response

    Relearning effect

    • After a period of time without
    • the stimulus, habituation upon representation will happen more rapidly

    Effect of stimulus intensity

    • Habituation occurs slower or not
    • at all with intense stimuli

    Occurs faster with weak stimuli

    Effects of overlearning

    • The more presentations of the
    • stimulus before the withholding period the and after there is no more
    • observable change in Bx the longer the retention of habituation

    Stimulus Generalization

    • Habituation generalizes to
    • similar stimuli
  15. Describe the opponent-process theory and apply it to the emotional response of a new or repeated stimulus.
    Two processes a and b

    • A is the initial reaction to stimuli
    • which is large

    • B kicks in later but stays high
    • longer which opposes a and bring emotional state back to baseline

    In repeated presentation

    • A
    • peaks but not as drastic

    • B immediately kicks in and has a
    • more drastic increase
  16. Identify the ways in which habituation is studied in human beings.
    Pets scans

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281 Unit 2
2011-09-14 00:10:23
281 Unit

281 Unit 2
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