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  1. What is an inflammation of the bladder?
    • Cystitis
    • Can be caused by irritation or by infection from bacteria, fungi, or parisites.
    • 2 kinds: Infectious( most common) and non infectious
  2. What are signs and symptoms of Cystitis?
    • Frequent urge to urinate
    • Dsyurai (painful)
    • Urgency
  3. What are the lower and upper urinary tract infections?
    • Lower: Urethritis (urethra), Cystitis (bladder and Prostatitis (prostate gland)
    • Upper: Pyelonephritis (kidney)
    • The site of infection is important to b/c it determines treatment
  4. Treatments for Cystitis?
    • More fluid. drink water and cranberry juice
    • Bacteria- antiseptics or antibiotics (ex.trimethoprim)
    • Fungal- antifungals
    • Antispasmodic decreases bladder spasms
    • Cystoscopy( identifies and remove calculi or obstructions) for reaccuring UTI's.
  5. Types of Incontinence?
    • Stress Incontinence
    • Urge Incontinence
    • Overflow Incontinence
    • Functional Incontinence
    • Mixed Form
  6. What is Stress Incontinence?
    • -Involuntary loss of urine during activities that increase abdominal and detrusor pressure ( pts can't tighten the urethra sufficiently to overcome the pressure. results in leaking).
    • -loss of small amounts of urine during coughing, sneezing, jogging ect.
  7. What is Urge Incontinence?
    • Involuntary loss of urine associated with a strong desire to urinate. Pt can't supress signal from the bladder muscle to the brain that it's time to urinate.
    • Aka overactive bladder
  8. What is Overflow Incontinence?
    • Involuntary loss of urine when bladder is full so bladder doesn't rupture.
    • Basically the urethra can't relax enough to allow urine flow resulting in incomplete bladder emptying.
  9. What is the formation of stones in the kidney?
  10. What is nocturia?
    need to urinate excessively at night
  11. What is a bacterial infection in the kidney and renal pelvis area?
  12. Pockets of infection with pus that can occur anywhere in the kidney.
  13. Causes of Pyelonephritis?
    • Acute- results from entry of bacteria (often E.coli). If bloodborne may be S.aureus or Candida or Salmonella.
    • - symptoms include fever, chills, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, burning, urgency to urinate
    • Chronic- occurs with structural deformities or obstructions with reflux (reverse upward flow of urine toward kidneys)
    • - symptoms include hypetension, inability to conserve sodium, decreased urine concentrating ability( nocturia)
  14. What is the presense of calculi (stones) in the urinary tract?
    • Urolithiasis
    • - 75% of stones contain calcium as one part of the stone complex
    • - stones often don't cause symptoms until they pass into lower urinary tract. extreme pain.
  15. Formation of stones in the kidney?
  16. Formation of stones in the ureter?
Card Set
Urinary Assessment, Urinary Problems,
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