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Federalism - And what are its parts?
the separate parts that make up one whole government; Federal govt -> state govt -> local govt (vertical govt)
What is the most expensive fed govt service? What percent does it take up?
How many fed govt dollars spent are from state/local tax revenues?
At least 50%
Why can we not determine which state is the best?
It is dependent on what we value therefore it is impossible to agree upon; lack of consistency.
Where does the model of federalism in the government come from?
The Constitution - 10th Amendment
What are the six main differences among the states?
- 1. physical/demographic attributes
- 2. wealth
- 3. social problems
- 4. politics
- 5. political institutions
- 6. public policies
Which areas are the least metroplitan in the United States?
South thru Missouri/Kansas, upper Great Plains, and northern Mountain West
Name 3 social problems that states face.
- 1. murder
- 2. unemployment
- 3. educating children
What are some trends in unemployment rates in the U.S.?
lower unemployment in the Great Plains states; higher unemployment in metropolitan areas
What does the commerce clause state and why is it important to federalism?
federal govt can regulate commerce between the states
Give an example of the power of the Supreme Court within federalism.
United States v Lopez - federal govt attempt to prohibit guns within 1000 ft of schools
Who does spending on the following items: national defense, social security, and education?
- National defense - federal govt
- Social security - federal govt
- Education - state govt
Who spends more: the fed or the state?
State govt spends more than the fed, but the fed often takes the "blame"/"fall".
Where is cost of living highest in the U.S.?
It's higher in the NE rather than the South.
What part of the U.S. has the highest amounts of poverty and the lowest percentages of people with high school completion?
The south and southwest
What are the least metropolitan states?
northern New England, traditional South w/ the exception of TX and FL
What is the relationship between metropolitan living and per capita income?
Higher percentage of metropolitan living means higher percentage of per capita income.
Where are minorities more likely to live? What about the elderly?
Southern states or states with high job availability like NY or NJ; Florida, NE, Great Plains region - less children in these states
Which states have the lowest life expectancies?
What are the 3 political cultures?
- 1. traditionalistic
- 2. moralistic
- 3. individualistic
Into which political culture does Texas usually fall?
What percent of TX's eligible electorate participated in statewide elections for U.S. Senate, governor, lieutenant governor, etc.?
What are some characteristics of liberal states?
What are some characteristics of conservative states?
the South and less urban states of the North; more traditionalistic states
What percent of voters vote with a straight party ticket?
Who has the power to sway a close election and why?
Less partisan and non-partisan voters because their loyalties are subject to change.
What correlation is there between the party affiliation of the governor and the percentage of same party members within the legislature?
There is no correlation
What are 2 factors that contribute to divided partisan control?
- 1. Timing of elections
- 2. Gerrymandering
Why is party competition important in state politics?
It encourages the affluent to vote.
What type of relationship is the following: States with many college graduates have higher per capita income.
What type of relationship is the following: The more fire engines that respond to a fire the greater the damage that is done.
Give an example of proactive spending. Give an example of reactive spending.
- Proactive - education
- Reactive - crime
What are 3 main differences between state political institutions?
- 1. single vs dual chamber legislature
- 2. length of sessions in state legislature
- 3. voting methods vary from state to state
What is significant about the session length of TX' legistlature?
They met for one of the least amounts of time and introduced the least amount of bills. Texans do not want more bills to be passed that would infringe on their freedoms.
About what percent of people in Texas are conservatives compared to liberals?
~35% to about ~17%
Describe the No Government Period (1776-1850).
A period of county government that was self-dependent and traditional. There was a sense of community. The best government was the least government.
Describe the Municipal Government Period (1850-1895).
Sense of community is lost as there is industrialization, influx of European immigrants, and urbanization. People become more dependent on govt to supply them with services provided through local govts. Introduction of the political machine. Those running for office seek to give services to voters in return for their vote.
Describe the State Intercity Government Period (1895-1932).
Municipal reform sweeps through government making cities economically and politically weaker. Civil service system came into affect. There was a changing arena of conflict as the immigrants and working class lost the power of their political influence. Common law became inadequate for dealing with disputes. 2 Primary Ideas: there are standards by which govt can be judged and reform can improve govt performance.
Describe the Federal Government Era (1932-Present).
Great increase in the scope of federal govt responsibilities. Became actively responsible for managing the economy and national defense. Fed govt uses income tax to generate revenue which makes it the wealthiest govt. Deficit spending and fed govt becomes concerned with issues outside of their national border. National standards take precedence over local standards.
3 Parts of New Federalism
- 1. individuals make better decisions than institutions
- 2. businesses make better decisions than govts
- 3. govts closer to the people make better decisions than distant govts
What are 3 principles for governing?
- 1. the private sector is superior to the public sector
- 2. less govt is preferable to more govt
- 3. state and local govts make better decisions than the fed govt
What are five factors that have led states in become innovative policymakers?
- 1. New Federalism
- 2. Modernization of state govts
- 3. Reapportionment of state legislatures
- 4. the South has caught up with the rest of the states in govt resource capacity
- 5. Overreaction by the states to the economic recession
At what rate (in billions) have state and local govt expenditures risen?
At what rate (in billions) has the fed govt expenditures risen?
Public aid expenditures have risen by what percentage?
From 45% to 60%
What are the differences between unitary, confederacy, and federalist govt?
- Unitary: centralized; regional/local govts do the bidding of the national govt
- Confederacy: The govt of govts undertakes programs and services desired by all constituent govts
- Federalist: establishes state/local and central govt that are separate, but not equal; central govt is the supreme law of the land
Explain the supremacy clause, the necessary and proper clause, and the commerce clause.
- Supremacy: fed govt law has supremacy over state law
- Necessary and Proper: Fed govt has the power to enact those laws which they deem to be necessary and proper for running govt
- Commerce: Fed govt has the power to regulate interstate commerce.
What are reserve powers, due process and equal protection, full faith and credit, and extradition?
- Reserve Powers: all powers not given to the federal govt are given to the states
- Due Process/Equal Protection: every citizen has a right to due process of the law and equal protection under the law
- Full Faith and Credit: Laws in one state must be recognized by all other states; criminals cannot escape the law by moving to another state
- Extradition: criminals are to be extradited to the state in which the crime was committed
What court case set a precedent for judicial review?
Marbury v Madison
What court case set a precedent for the commerce clause?
United States v Lopez
What court case set a precedent for the necessary and proper clause?
McCulloch v Maryland
Voters ratify about what percant of state amendments?
What is incrementalism?
The use of small, slow changes to govt to protect from tyranny of the majority.
People pay about what percentage of tax from their income?
What is redistribution and what is it influenced by?
When money is taken from the wealthy through taxes and given to the poor through services. It is influenced by self-interest.
What are 2 basis for measuring ability to pay?
Income and wealth
What percentage of GDP is from state, local, and national taxes?
What are the 3 types of taxes?
Which part of the United States still has a high dependency on sales tax?
What type of tax does Texas depend least on (what percent?) and what type of tax does Texas depend most on (what percent?)?
- Least: income (less than 10%)
- Most: property (at least 40%)
Are TX taxes regressive or progressive and by what percentage?
They are regressive at about 9%
What are the four major sources of state govt revenue?
- 1. federal transfer payments
- 2. trust funds, unemployment, workers comp, insurance trusts
- 3. sales tax
- 4. income tax on individuals and corporations
What percentage of federal revenues are made up of individual income tax and federal payroll tax?
What is the greatest percentage of local govt expenditure?
What is the greatest percentage of state govt expenditure?
Social services (36%)
What is the greatest difference between federal govt and state govt?
what they control
What purpose does law serve?
it determines whether your country develops on an upward track; slows change
What is the purpose of having a Senate?
it is a compromise; protects from the tyranny of the majority
What is constitutional law and how does it "protect" us?
the law expressed in the Constitution; it protects us because it takes a lot of people to change and a lot of time
What is statutory law?
Law passed by the state
What is common law?
the Court system
What is the difference between equality of outcome and equality of opportunity?
- outcome: two people receive the same thing
- opportunity: two people are given the same chance
Why would states allow the interference of the federal govt in interstate commerce?
States allow this because of representation of states in federal govt.
What is free riding? Give an example.
People who take the benefit without contributing anything in return. Ex: people who know their contribution to nat'l defense will not make a difference then they won't contribute, but they will still gain the benefit of nat'l defense
Explain rational choice.
everyone makes decisions that benefit themselves; individuals maximize personal utility
Why are rational choice and public goods incompatible?
People don't want to pay taxes, but govt requires that we do in order to pay for public goods such as roads that we would rather use for free.
Why does Texas spend such a significant amount of money on education?
- more kids
- political traction
- investing in the future
Explain pork barrel spending.
People who have been in legislature for a while can get funds for state govt projects from the fed govt.
How does constitutional law develop?
Neutral Tax Incidence, Progressive Tax Incidence, Regressive Tax Incidence
- all people pay the same proportion of income in taxes
- wealthy pay higher proportion of income taxes
- poor pay higher proportion of income in taxes
Why is sales tax regressive?
the wealthy value the value of a dollar more than poor
Why is property tax regressive if it is a flat rate?
Poor people cannot escape paying property tax even when renting they pay the tax through mortgage and they never receive the benefit of owning their own property
What is market failure?
when the market system fails to work the way it is supposed to
What are the 5 causes of market failure?
- 1. public goods
- 2. assymetric information
- 3. monopoly/monopsony
- 4. externalities
- 5. moral hazards
How can public goods cause market failure?
What is assymetric information?
the seller knows something about the product that the buyer doesn't know
What is a monopsony? Example?
U.S. govt is the only consumer of certain things. Ex: national defense
Give an example of externalities.
The poor not receiving an education created uneducated voters, apathy, and no political participation.