Metabolism and Energetics

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Metabolism and Energetics
2010-03-12 21:21:36

metabolism and energetics
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  1. nutrients
    chemical substance supplied by the environment required for survival
  2. macronutients
    carbohydrates,lipids and protein
  3. micronutrients
    vitamins and minerals
  4. essential nutrients
    nutrients that the body cannont synthesize and must be added to diet
  5. nonessential nutrients
    nutrients that the body can synthesize
  6. carbohydrates
    energy source
  7. monosaccharides
    glucose,sucrose and galactose
  8. disaccharides
    sucrose, maltose and lactose
  9. polysaccarides
    starch, glycose and cellulose
  10. glycogenesis
    process of formation of glycogen from glucose
  11. lipogenesis
    process of the formation of fat from carbohydrates
  12. lipids
    energy source. building block- fatty acids and glycerol
  13. essential fatty acids
    fatty acids that the body cannot synthesize

    example: linoleic acid
  14. non essential fatty acid
    • Fatty acid that the body can synthesize.
    • Protein: for growth and repair of tissue, also energy source
  15. complete protein
    protein that contains all of the essential amino acid
  16. incomplete protein
    protein that lack one or more essential amino acid
  17. proteins found in muscles
    hormones, plasma, hemoglobin & enzymes
  18. Animals protein vs. plant protein
    animal protein is complete protein while plant proteins are incomplete
  19. fat soluable vitamin
  20. Water soluable vitamins
  21. vitamin A
    visual pigments
  22. vitamin D
    absorption of calcium from the small intestine
  23. vitamin K
    for blood clotting
  24. macrominerals
    needed in large amounts. calcium, phosphorus,sodium, chlorine
  25. microminerals
    needed in small or trace amounts.
  26. iodine(micromineral)
    for the thyroid
  27. iron(micromineral)
    for hemoglobin
  28. fluorine(micromineral)
    for the teeth
  29. Calcium(micromineral)
    for bone
  30. calculate total calories supplied by given food
    • 1 gram of carbohydrate yeilds 4 calories
    • 1 gram of protein yields 4 calories
    • 1 gram of _______yields 9.5 calories