The smallest unit of life, consisting at a minimum of an outer membrane that encloses a watery medium that contains organic molecules and DNA.
What are the 3 principles that comprise the cell theory?
1. Every living thing is made up of one or more cells.
2. The smallest living organisms are single cells, and cells are the functional units of multicellular organisms.
3. All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
What are the basic attributes of cells?
-Cell function limits cell size.
-Cells need to exchange nutrients and wastes with the enviroment.
-No part of the cell can be far away from the external enviroment.
The ________ encloses the cell and allows interactions between the cell and its enviroment.
Each cell is surrounded by an extremely thin, rather fluid membrane called the ______.
The plasma membrane's 3 functions are?
1. Isolates cell's internal from external enviroment.
2. Regulates flow of materials in and out of cells.
3. Allows interactions with other cells.
Use lenses, usually made of glass of quartz, to focus light rays that either pass through or bounce off a specimen, thereby magnifying its image.
Uses beams of electrons instead of light, which are focused by magnetic fields rather than by lenses.
Bounce electrons off speciments that have been coated with metals and provide three-dimensional images.
Scanning electron microscopes
Consists of all the fluid and structures that lie inside the plasma membrane, but outside of the nucleus.
The fluid portion of the cytoplasm in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, called the ______, contains water, salts, and an assortment of organic molecules, including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides.
There are two basic types of cells, and they include?
Structure of the cell surface is made up of what?
Cell wall and plasma membrane
Organization of Genetic Material is made up of what?
Genetic material, chromosomes, nucleus, nuclear envelope, and nucleolus.
Cytoplasmic Structures are made up of what?
Mitochondria, chloroplast, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Plastids, central vacuole, other vesicles and vacuoles, cytoskeleton, centioles, cilia, and flagella.
A membrane-enclosed structure found inside a eukaryotic cell that performs a specific function.
A network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm that gives shape to a cell, holds and moves organelles, and is typically involved in a cell movement.
The outer surfaces of plants, fungi, and some protists are covered with nonliving, relatively stiff coatings called _______ that support and protect the delicate plasma membrane.
A short, hair-like, motile projection from the surface of certain eukaryotic cells that contains microtubules in a 9 + 2 arrangement.
A long, hair-like,motile extension of the plasma membrane, in eukaryotic cells, it contains microtubules arranged in a 9 +2 pattern.
In animal cells, a short, barrel-shaped ring consisteing of nine microtubule triplets.
The _____ is an organelle (usually the largest in the cell) consisting of three major parts: the nuclear envelope, chromatin, and the nucleolus.
The double-membrane system surrounding the nucleus of eukaryotic cells: the outer membrane is typically continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes.
A DNA double helix together with proteins that help to organize and regulate the use of the DNA.
The region of teh eukaryotic nucleus that is engaged in ribosome synthesis; consists of the genes encoding ribosomal RNA, newly synthesized ribosomal RNA, and ribosomal proteins.
Is a small particle composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins that serves as a kind of "workbench" for the synthesis of proteins within the cell cytoplasm.