kati c 6
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what is contained in the nucleus?
what are in plant cells but not in animal cells?
what part of the eukary cell contains the most genes? What other parts contain some genes?
-mit chondria and chloroplasts
what is the nuclear envelope?
-double membrane enclosing the nucle
us; seperating its parts from the cytoplasm
-perforated by pores
continues into ER
what are chromosomes? what is it made of?
DNA that is organized into discreat units that carry the genetic information.
what is chromatin?
a complex of proteins and DNA
what is the nucleolus?
-appears as a mass of densely stained granules and fibers adjoining part of the chromatin.
-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized from instructions in the DNA
-proteins imported from the cytoplasm are assembles with rRNA into small and large ribosomal subunits.
what are ribosomes? What kinds are there?
-made of ribosomal RNA and protein
-carry out protein synthesis
-free ribosomes- suspended to the cytosol
-bound ribosomes- attached to the outside of the rough ER and nuclear envelope
-have a large and small subunit
What are the parts of the endomembrane system?
what is the endoplasmic reticulum?
-network of membraneous sacs and tubes
-active in membrane synthesis as well as other synthetic and metabolic processes
what does smoth ER do?
-diversely metabolic processes
-synthesis of lipids
-metabolism of carbohydrates
-detoxification of drugs and alcohol
deals with protein modification.
-separates secretory proteins and proteins produces by ribosomes
-where products of the ER such as protein are modified and then stored and then sent to other destinations
-lokes like stack of pancakes or pita bread
-ci receive; trans ship, cis next to ER
-if protein is not fully functional will send a transport vessicle through layer and may become modified. when gets through will go to cell
-digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed
-made by rough ER and then transfered to the golgi apparatus for furter processing
-some arrise by budding to the transface of the golgi apparatus
-contains digestive enzymes
what is phagocytosis
small cell organisms eat smaller ones and small particles tehn digest it using a food vacuole that attaches to a lysosome, whose enzymes digest the food
membrane enclosing the cell
-functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the entire cell
the interior of a prokaryotic cell
-also the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell.
what types of vacuoles
-formed by phagocytosis
-container for food
pump excess water out of the cell
-prominent organelle in older plant cells
-functions include breakdown of waste products, hydrolysis of molecules
-enlargement of vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth
-derived from ER and Golgi apparatus
-selective in transporting solute and makes cell sap, different in composition from cytosol
-membrane bound vesicles
-organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated
-how we break down food for energy
-contains own DNA
-kidney bean with squiggly lines in it
-green eggs with circle stacks connected o eachother
-converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules
-organelle with various specialized metabolic functions
-produces hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct then converts it to water
-deactivates or modify compound
what is included in the cytoskeleton?
what is a cyoskleton?
-reinforces cell shape
-functions in cell movement
-components are made of protein
-thickest of 3 in cyrtoskeleton
-made of actin
-shape and support the cell
-like little balls in a string
-has a positive side
-grow by adding tubuin dimers and can be disassembled
-tubulin can be used to build microtubulin elsewhere
-fibers with diameter ina middle range
-made of keratin
thinnest of 3
-made of tubulin
centrsome and centrioles
-region where the cell's microtubules are initiated
-contains a pair of centrioles
(looks like straw starts that are 90 degress to eachother)
-microtubules funtion as a compression-resisting girder of the cytoskeleton
-centrioleles contained of 9 sets of triple microtubles arranged in a ring
flagellum and cilium (flagella and cilia)
-microtubule containing extensions that project from some cells
-loco motion organelle present in some animal cells
-composed of a cluster of microtubules withtin an extension of the plasma membrane
-have 9 microtubules
plant cell walls
-outer layer that maintains cell shape and protects cell from mechanical damage
-made from cellulose, other polysaccharides and protein
-water retention (water doesnt escape)
-the plasma membranes of neighboring cells are tightly pressed together and bound by protein
-prevent leakage of extracellular fluids across a layer of epitheliel cells
-example-skin cells prevent leakage in sweat glands
-fastens cells togeter into strong sheets
-not as strong as tight junctions
-provides channels (tunnels) that go back and forth betwen cells
-only small molecules can pass
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kati c 6
kati c 6
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