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what is contained in the nucleus?
- -nuclear envelope
what are in plant cells but not in animal cells?
- -cell wall
what part of the eukary cell contains the most genes? What other parts contain some genes?
- -mit chondria and chloroplasts
what is the nuclear envelope?
- -double membrane enclosing the nucleus; seperating its parts from the cytoplasm
- -perforated by pores
- -continues into ER
what are chromosomes? what is it made of?
- DNA that is organized into discreat units that carry the genetic information.
what is chromatin?
a complex of proteins and DNA
what is the nucleolus?
- -appears as a mass of densely stained granules and fibers adjoining part of the chromatin.
- -ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized from instructions in the DNA
- -proteins imported from the cytoplasm are assembles with rRNA into small and large ribosomal subunits.
- makes ribosomes
what are ribosomes? What kinds are there?
- -made of ribosomal RNA and protein
- -carry out protein synthesis
- -free ribosomes- suspended to the cytosol
- -bound ribosomes- attached to the outside of the rough ER and nuclear envelope
- -have a large and small subunit
What are the parts of the endomembrane system?
- -endoplasmic reticulum
- -Golgi Apparatus
what is the endoplasmic reticulum?
- -network of membraneous sacs and tubes
- -active in membrane synthesis as well as other synthetic and metabolic processes
what does smoth ER do?
- -diversely metabolic processes
- -synthesis of lipids
- -metabolism of carbohydrates
- -detoxification of drugs and alcohol
- deals with protein modification.
- -separates secretory proteins and proteins produces by ribosomes
- -where products of the ER such as protein are modified and then stored and then sent to other destinations
- -lokes like stack of pancakes or pita bread
- -ci receive; trans ship, cis next to ER
- -if protein is not fully functional will send a transport vessicle through layer and may become modified. when gets through will go to cell
- -digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed
- -made by rough ER and then transfered to the golgi apparatus for furter processing
- -some arrise by budding to the transface of the golgi apparatus
- -contains digestive enzymes
what is phagocytosis
small cell organisms eat smaller ones and small particles tehn digest it using a food vacuole that attaches to a lysosome, whose enzymes digest the food
- membrane enclosing the cell
- -functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the entire cell
- the interior of a prokaryotic cell
- -also the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell.
what types of vacuoles
- -food vacuoles
- -contactile vacuoles
- -central vacuole
- -formed by phagocytosis
- -container for food
- pump excess water out of the cell
- -prominent organelle in older plant cells
- -functions include breakdown of waste products, hydrolysis of molecules
- -enlargement of vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth
- -derived from ER and Golgi apparatus
- -selective in transporting solute and makes cell sap, different in composition from cytosol
- -membrane bound vesicles
- -organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated
- -how we break down food for energy
- -contains own DNA
- -kidney bean with squiggly lines in it
- -green eggs with circle stacks connected o eachother
- -photosynthetic organelle
- -converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules
- -organelle with various specialized metabolic functions
- -produces hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct then converts it to water
- -deactivates or modify compound
what is included in the cytoskeleton?
- -intermediate filaments
what is a cyoskleton?
- -reinforces cell shape
- -functions in cell movement
- -components are made of protein
- -thickest of 3 in cyrtoskeleton
- -hollow rods
- -made of actin
- -shape and support the cell
- -like little balls in a string
- -has a positive side
- -grow by adding tubuin dimers and can be disassembled
- -tubulin can be used to build microtubulin elsewhere
- -fibers with diameter ina middle range
- -made of keratin
- thinnest of 3
- -made of tubulin
centrsome and centrioles
- -region where the cell's microtubules are initiated
- -contains a pair of centrioles
- (looks like straw starts that are 90 degress to eachother)
- -microtubules funtion as a compression-resisting girder of the cytoskeleton
- -centrioleles contained of 9 sets of triple microtubles arranged in a ring
flagellum and cilium (flagella and cilia)
- in eukaryotes
- -microtubule containing extensions that project from some cells
- -loco motion organelle present in some animal cells
- -composed of a cluster of microtubules withtin an extension of the plasma membrane
- -have 9 microtubules
plant cell walls
- -outer layer that maintains cell shape and protects cell from mechanical damage
- -made from cellulose, other polysaccharides and protein
- -water retention (water doesnt escape)
- -tight junctions
- -gap junctions
- -the plasma membranes of neighboring cells are tightly pressed together and bound by protein
- -prevent leakage of extracellular fluids across a layer of epitheliel cells
- -example-skin cells prevent leakage in sweat glands
- -fastens cells togeter into strong sheets
- -not as strong as tight junctions
- -like staple
- -provides channels (tunnels) that go back and forth betwen cells
- -only small molecules can pass