kati c 6

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kati c 6
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2011-09-13 21:46:26
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kati c 6
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  1. what is contained in the nucleus?
    • -nucleolus
    • -chromatin
    • -nuclear envelope
  2. what are in plant cells but not in animal cells?
    • -chrloroplastvacuole
    • -cell wall
    • -central
    • -plasmodesmata
  3. what part of the eukary cell contains the most genes? What other parts contain some genes?
    • -nucleus
    • -mit chondria and chloroplasts
  4. what is the nuclear envelope?
    • -double membrane enclosing the nucleus; seperating its parts from the cytoplasm
    • -perforated by pores
    • -continues into ER
  5. what are chromosomes? what is it made of?
    • DNA that is organized into discreat units that carry the genetic information.
    • -chromatin
  6. what is chromatin?
    a complex of proteins and DNA
  7. what is the nucleolus?
    • -appears as a mass of densely stained granules and fibers adjoining part of the chromatin.
    • -ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized from instructions in the DNA
    • -proteins imported from the cytoplasm are assembles with rRNA into small and large ribosomal subunits.
    • makes ribosomes
  8. what are ribosomes? What kinds are there?
    • -made of ribosomal RNA and protein
    • -carry out protein synthesis
    • -free ribosomes- suspended to the cytosol
    • -bound ribosomes- attached to the outside of the rough ER and nuclear envelope
    • -have a large and small subunit
  9. What are the parts of the endomembrane system?
    • -endoplasmic reticulum
    • -Golgi Apparatus
    • -Lysosomes
    • -Vacuoles
  10. what is the endoplasmic reticulum?
    • -network of membraneous sacs and tubes
    • -active in membrane synthesis as well as other synthetic and metabolic processes
  11. what does smoth ER do?
    • -diversely metabolic processes
    • -synthesis of lipids
    • -metabolism of carbohydrates
    • -detoxification of drugs and alcohol
  12. rough ER?
    • deals with protein modification.
    • -separates secretory proteins and proteins produces by ribosomes
  13. golgi apparatus?
    • -where products of the ER such as protein are modified and then stored and then sent to other destinations
    • -lokes like stack of pancakes or pita bread
    • -ci receive; trans ship, cis next to ER
    • -if protein is not fully functional will send a transport vessicle through layer and may become modified. when gets through will go to cell
  14. lysosomes
    • -digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed
    • -made by rough ER and then transfered to the golgi apparatus for furter processing
    • -some arrise by budding to the transface of the golgi apparatus

    • -contains digestive enzymes
    • -
  15. what is phagocytosis
    small cell organisms eat smaller ones and small particles tehn digest it using a food vacuole that attaches to a lysosome, whose enzymes digest the food
  16. plasma membrane
    • membrane enclosing the cell
    • -functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the entire cell
  17. cytoplasm
    • the interior of a prokaryotic cell
    • -also the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane of a eukaryotic cell.
  18. cytosol
    the liquid
  19. what types of vacuoles
    • -food vacuoles
    • -contactile vacuoles
    • -central vacuole
  20. food vacuole
    • -formed by phagocytosis
    • -container for food
  21. contractile vacuole
    • pump excess water out of the cell
    • (paramesium)
  22. central vacuole
    • -prominent organelle in older plant cells
    • -functions include breakdown of waste products, hydrolysis of molecules
    • -enlargement of vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth
    • -derived from ER and Golgi apparatus

    • -selective in transporting solute and makes cell sap, different in composition from cytosol
    • -membrane bound vesicles
  23. mitochondria
    • -organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated
    • -how we break down food for energy
    • -contains own DNA
    • -kidney bean with squiggly lines in it
  24. chloroplast
    • -green eggs with circle stacks connected o eachother
    • -photosynthetic organelle
    • -converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules
  25. peroxisomes
    • -organelle with various specialized metabolic functions
    • -produces hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct then converts it to water
    • -deactivates or modify compound
  26. what is included in the cytoskeleton?
    • -microfilameles
    • -microtubules
    • -intermediate filaments
  27. what is a cyoskleton?
    • -reinforces cell shape
    • -functions in cell movement
    • -components are made of protein
  28. microtubules
    • -thickest of 3 in cyrtoskeleton
    • -hollow rods
    • -made of actin
    • -shape and support the cell
    • -like little balls in a string
    • -has a positive side
    • -grow by adding tubuin dimers and can be disassembled
    • -tubulin can be used to build microtubulin elsewhere
  29. intermediate filaments
    • -fibers with diameter ina middle range
    • -made of keratin
  30. micreofilaments
    • thinnest of 3
    • -made of tubulin
  31. centrsome and centrioles
    • -region where the cell's microtubules are initiated
    • -contains a pair of centrioles
    • (looks like straw starts that are 90 degress to eachother)
    • -microtubules funtion as a compression-resisting girder of the cytoskeleton
    • -centrioleles contained of 9 sets of triple microtubles arranged in a ring
  32. flagellum and cilium (flagella and cilia)
    • in eukaryotes
    • -microtubule containing extensions that project from some cells

    • -loco motion organelle present in some animal cells
    • -composed of a cluster of microtubules withtin an extension of the plasma membrane
    • -have 9 microtubules
  33. plant cell walls
    • -outer layer that maintains cell shape and protects cell from mechanical damage
    • -made from cellulose, other polysaccharides and protein
    • -water retention (water doesnt escape)
  34. intercellular junctions
    • -tight junctions
    • -desmosomes
    • -gap junctions
  35. tight junctions
    • -the plasma membranes of neighboring cells are tightly pressed together and bound by protein
    • -prevent leakage of extracellular fluids across a layer of epitheliel cells
    • -example-skin cells prevent leakage in sweat glands
  36. desmosomes
    • -fastens cells togeter into strong sheets
    • -not as strong as tight junctions
    • -like staple
  37. gap junction
    • -provides channels (tunnels) that go back and forth betwen cells
    • -only small molecules can pass

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