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  1. Sulfonamides
    • Trimethoprim
    • Sulfamethoxazole

    • ask about allergies esp. sulfa drugs
    • full glass with each dose
    • stay out of sun
    • complete drug regimen
  2. =Quinolones
    • Ciprofloxacin
    • Levofloxacin
    • Norflaxacin

    • swallow extended release drugs whole
    • do not take within 2hrs of antacid
    • teach pt to moniter pulse twice daily
    • stay out of sun
    • complete drug regimen
  3. Penicillins

    • Ask pt about allergies to penicillin prior
    • teach to take with food
    • notify if watery diarrhea develops
    • tell women who take oral contraceptives to use an additional method of birth control
    • complete drug regimen
  4. Urinary Antiseptics

    • teach pt's to shake the bottle well before measuring the drug
    • suggest the use of a calibrated spoon for measurements
    • drink with full glass
    • complete drug regimen
  5. Bladder Analgesics

    • will not treat infection, only symptoms
    • take drug with or immediately after a meal
    • urine will turn red or orange
  6. involuntary loss of urine during activities that increase abdominal and detrusor pressure
    stress incontinence
  7. involuntary loss of urine associated with a strong desire to urinate
    urge incontinence
  8. involuntary loss of urine associated with overdistenion of the blader when the bladder's capacity has reached it's max
    overflow incontinece
  9. a combo of stress, urge, and overflow incontinence
    mixed incontinence
  10. leakage of urine caused by factors other than disease of the lower urinary tract
    functional incontinence
  11. responsible for accreditting documentation
    joint commission
  12. shift report exchange
    • do not need to be face to face
    • continuity
    • up to date info
    • opportunity to ask questions
  13. fat slouble vitamens
  14. water soluble vitamens
    c and b complex
  15. Urinalysis normal lab values:
  16. Urinalysis normal lab values:
  17. Urinalysis normal lab values:
  18. Urinalysis normal lab values:
    0-2 per high powered field
  19. Urinalysis normal lab values:
    • F(0-3)
    • M(0-5)

    per high powered field
  20. Urinalysis normal lab values:
    Specific Gravity
  21. Normal Blood values:
    0.5-1.2 mg/dL
  22. Normal Blood values
    10-20 mg/dL
  23. clean catch urine specimen
    mid stream, clean urethra, only 1 oz (30mL) needed
  24. operative proceudure for diagnosis or treatment
  25. inflammatory disease that has no known cause
    interstitial cystitus
  26. at higher risk for fungal infections
    • immunosuppressed
    • recieving corticosteroids
    • diabetes
    • AIDS
  27. urinalysis for pt with suspected UTI
    leukocyte, esterase and nitrate
  28. Mgmt of stress incontinence
    • keep diary, behavioral interventions, and drugs
    • kegel exercises for women
    • avoid diuretics
    • estrogen for postmenopausal women
  29. Mgmt of urge incontinence
    • drugs that relax smooth m. thus increasing bladders capacity
    • avoid diuretics
    • prompted voiding
    • habit training
    • scheduled voiding
    • kegels
  30. Mgmt of overflow incontinence
    • surgery (prostatectomy) to relieve urethral obstruction
    • intermittent self cath
    • drug therapy (bethanechol chloride; increases bladder pressure
  31. the presence of calculi in the urinary tract
  32. formation of stones in the kidney
  33. formation of stones in the ureter
  34. enlargement of the kidney caused by blockage of urine lower in the tract and filling of the kidney with urine
  35. increase the risk for stone formation
    • urinary stasis
    • urinary retention
    • imobility
    • dehydration
  36. little urine output
  37. absence of urine
  38. Is urinary tract obstruction a emergency or non emergency situation?
    EMERGENCY. must be treated immediately to preserve kidney function
  39. drug therapy treatment for stones
    • opiod analgesics for pain
    • spasmolytic drugs for pain
  40. drug treatment for hypercalciuria
    hydrocholorothiazide; a thiazie diuretic
  41. treatment for urothelial cancer
    • excision
    • intravesical chemo
    • radiation
    • cysectomy (bladder removal)
  42. collect urine into a portion of the intestine, opens to a stoma
  43. divert ureter to abdominal skin surface as a stoma
  44. divert urine to a surgically created pouch. pt self caths to void
    ileal reservoirs
  45. diverts ureters to sigmoid where urine is excreted with bowels
  46. multidisciplinary care plans that include client problems, key interventions and expected outcomes within an established time frame
    critical pathways
  47. an anticholingeric with smooth m. relaxant property. for urge incontinece, relaxes the smooth m. of the bladder, inhibit nerve fibers that stimulate bladder contraction
  48. (androgen hormone inhibitor) prevents development of BPH

    side effects: impotence, decreased libido, decreased ejaculate volume, rash, breast tenderness
  49. endometrial tissure implantation outside the uterine cavity
  50. symptoms of endometriosis
    • lower abd and back pain
    • dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
    • painful defecation
    • hypermenorrhea
    • pelvic tenderness
  51. Hormonal and surgery treatment for endometriosis
    • contraceptives, endostatins (block formation of new blood vessels)
    • laparoscopic removal of endometrial implants and adhesions
    • laser treatment
    • uterus and ovaries may be removed
  52. bleeding that is excessive in amt (more than 80 mL per cycle) or frequency (more than every 21 days)
    • DUB
    • Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
  53. treatments for DUB
    • hormone manipulation
    • endometrial ablation (removal of uterine lining using a laser)
  54. benign slow growing tumors of the uterus that develop from the uterine mymetrium
    uterine leiomyomas
  55. factors for timing menopause
    autoimmune disease, chromosomal abnormalities, genetics, early menarch(later menopause), hysterectomy, smoking (earlier menopause), cancer treatment
  56. caused by an increased production of uterine prostaglandins
    primary dysmenorrhea
  57. symptoms include abrupt high fever within 24 hrs of onset, headache, flu-like symptoms, sever hypotension with fainting. Sunburn like rash with broken capillaries in eyes and skin
    Toxic shock sydrome
  58. collect urine into a portion of the intestine, opens to a stoma
  59. divert ureter to abdominal skin surface as a stoma
  60. divert urine to a surgically created pouch
    ileal resivoirs
  61. diverts ureters to sigmoid where urine is excreted with bowels
  62. not very common, rarely bilateral, and most often in men 12-35 y.o.
    testicular cancer
  63. tumors arising from the sperm producing cells
    Germ cell testicular cancer
  64. tumors arising from the stroma interstitial cells that produce testosterone
    Non Germ Cell testicular cancer
  65. two types of Germ cell producing tumors
    • seminomas
    • non seminomas
  66. 3 types of non seminomas treated with surgery or chemo
    • emryonal carcinoma
    • teratoma
    • choriocarinoma
  67. a gradual deteriation of function with regards to the male reproductive system
    organic ED
  68. when a pt has an episoic ED (cause being psychological)
    functional ED
  69. work by relaxing the smooth m. in the corpora cavernosa so blood floow to the penis is increased
    PDE-5 inhibitors

    ex. viagra, cialis
  70. why avoid PDE-5 (ED drugs) inhibitors while on nitrates
    bc vasodilation effects can reduce blood flow to the vital organs
  71. a cylinder that fits over the penis and sits firmly against the body. using a pump a vaccum is creat to draw blood into the penis to maintain erection
    vaccum constrition device (VCD)
  72. most common cancer among men and the 2nd leading cause of deaths from cancer in men
  73. most at risk for prostate cancer
    african american middle aged men
  74. symptoms include difficulty initiating urinination, recurrent bladder infections and urinary retention
    prostate cancer
  75. most effective screening procedure for prostate cancer are
    • digital rectal examine (DRE)
    • prostate-specific antigen test (PSA)
  76. results from glandular units in the prostate undergo tissue hyperplasia resulting in prostatic hypertrophy
    benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
  77. drugs that lower the level of dihydrotestosterone which can shrink the enlarged prostate and prevent further growth
    5 alpha reductase inhibitor (5-ARI)
  78. when these drugs are given the prostate gland constricts thereby reducing urethral pressure and improving urine flow
    alpha block agents

    ex- flomax
  79. closed procedure in which the enlarged portion of the postate is removed through an endoscopic instrument that is inserted through the urethra and into the bladder
    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
  80. After a ____ all pt's will have a foley catheter for at least a day
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