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  1. Define Child Development
    A field of study devoted to understanding all aspects of human constancy and change from conception through adolescence
  2. Developmental Science
    An interdisciplinar field devoted to the study of all changes we experence throughout the lifespan
  3. Theory
    An orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior
  4. Continious Development
    A view that regards development as a cumulative process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with
  5. discontinous development
    a view of development as a process in which new ways of nderstanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
  6. Stage
    a qualitative change in thinking feeling and behaing that characterizes a specific period of development
  7. contexts
    unique combination of personals and environmental circumstances that can result in markedly diferent paths of change
  8. nature-nuture controversy
    debate among theorists about whether genetic or environmental factors are more important in development
  9. resilience
    the ability to adapt effecively in the face of threats to development
  10. tabula rasa
    locke's view of the chils as a "blank slate" whose character is shaped entirely by experience
  11. psychoanalytical perspective
    Freud's view of personality development, in which children move through a series of stages in which they cofront conflcits between biological drives and social expectations. The way these conflcits are resolved determines psychological adjustment
  12. psychosexual theory
    freud's theory, which emphasizes that how parents manage childrens sexual and aggresive drives in the first few years of life in crucial for healthy personality development
  13. psychosocial theory
    ericksons theory which emphasizes that at each Freudian stage, individuals not only develop a unique personalitybut also acquire attitudes and skills that help them become active, contributing members of their society
  14. behavior modification
    procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable responses
  15. cognitive-developmental theory
    An approach introduced by Piaget that views children as actively constructing knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world and that regards cognitive development as taking place in stages
  16. information processing
    an approach that views the human mind as a symbol manipulating system through which information flows and that regards cognitive development as a continious process
  17. developmental cognitive neuroscience
    An area of investigation that brings together researches from psychology biology neuroscience and medicine to study the relationship etween changes in the brain and the developing childs cognitive processing and behavior patterns
  18. ethology
    An approach concerned with the adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history
  19. Sensitive period
    A time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences
  20. evolutionary developmental psychology
    An approach hat seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive emotional and social competencies as those competencies change with age
  21. sociocultural theory
    Vygotsky's theory in which children acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a communitys culture through cooperative dialogues with more knowledgable members of their society
  22. ecological systems theory
    bronfenbrenners approach whcih vies the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected bymultiple levels of the surrounding environment from immediate settings of family and school to broad cultural values and program
  23. Clinical/Case Study Method
    A method in which the researcher attempts to understand an individual child by combining interview data, observations, and sometimes test scores
  24. ethnography
    a method in whcih the researcher attempts to understand the unique values and social processes of a culture or a disctinct social group through participant observation - living with its members and takin field notes over an extended period of time
  25. Correlational Design
    A research design in whcih the researcher gathers information on individuals without altering particpants experiences and then examines relationships between variables. Does not permit referencesabout cause and effect
  26. Correlation coefficient
    A number ranging from +100 to -100 that describes the strength and direction of the relationships between two enables
  27. Experimental design
    A research design in which the investigator randomly assigns participations to treatment conditions. Permits inferences about cause and effect
  28. independent variable
    the variable the researcher expects to cause changes in another variable in an experiment
  29. dependent variable
    the variable the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable in an experiment
  30. cross-sectional design
    A research design in which groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time
  31. sequintal design
    A research design in which several similar cross sectional or longitudinal studies (Calles sequences) are conduced at varying times
  32. microgenetic design
    A research design in which investigators present children with novel task and follow their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions
Card Set
Chapter 1 History, Theory, and Research Strategies in Educational Psychology
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