Why are the biomes where they are and how do we get them?
Different wind and percipitation patterns
climate determines distribution and structure of terrestrial biomes
What are proximate causes? Example
reffered to as the "how" questions
focus on the environmental stimuli, if any, that trigger a behavior
also focuses on the genetic, physiological, and anatomical mechanisms underlaying a behavioral act
how a behavior happens and what it looks like
Ex: How day length influences breeding by the red-crowned cranes
What are Ultimate causes? Example?
reffered to as the "why" questions
they address the evolutionary significance of a behavior
how does behavior contribute to survival and reproduction
adaptive value, why it is happening
Ex: Why natural selection favors this behavior over another one
What is Ethology?
the study of how animals behave
Who are the pioneers in the study of the animal behaviors?
Karl Von Frish
Who was Karl von Frish? What did he do?
he noticed workers had a specific way of telling the colony where the food was
---> the waggle dance
Who is Niko Tinbergen? What did he do?
scientist who studied fixed action patterns
Fixed Action Patterns: innate behaviors that continue once started no matter what
studied sticklebacks-the color red was a sign stimulus that triggered aggression
Who is Konrad Lorenz? What did he do?
scientist who studied geese
saw imprinting in the geese
Imprinting: learning to form social attatchments at the specific critical period (innate and learned characteristics)
What are Innate behaviors?
developmentally fixed, strong genetic component
ex: migration is an innate behavior
What are types of innate behaviors?
Taxis & Kinesis
Fixed Action Patterns
Imprinting (innate and learned)
What is Taxis? What is an example?
direct movement towards or away from a stimulus
ex: phototaxis in plants- movement towards light
What is Kinesis? Give an example
a non direct response to a stimulus
ex: moving around doing a bunch of different things and stopping to notice a candybar
What is Bird Migration? Talk about the experiment
considered a complex innate behavior
migratory restlessnes seen in birds bred and raised in captivity
navigate by sun, stars, earth magnetic fields
experiment cross bread birds who migrate with ones who didnt and 40% of offspring tried to migrate- inherited
What are Fixed Action Patterns?
sequence of behaviors essentially unchangeable and usually conducted until completion once started
triggered by a sign stimulus
What is a sign stimulus?
the releaser that triggers a fixed action pattern
What is Imprinting? How does it affect evolution?
learning to form social attatchments at specific critical period
organisms during that period who follow adult are more likely to survive, helping evolution
both learning and innate components
What is the Critical Period?
sensitive phase for optimal (viusual) imprinting
When must some behavior be learned? Example?
during a receptive period
for some birds, learning their songs the bird will have passive listening during the sensitive period, when they are juvenile, they have a subsong, and it takes until adulthood for the final crystalized song
however some songs are inherited
What is Learned Behavior?
modification of behavior based on experience
What are the types of learned behavior?
What is Habituation?
Loss of response to a stimulus
the "cry wolf" effect
What is Spatial Learning?
the modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of the environment, including the locations of nest sites, hazards, food, and prospective mates
What is the experiment that Tinbergen did with digger wasps for spatial learning?
Tinbergen moved the circle of pinecones surrounding a wasp nest and found that the wasps had used it at a landmark, because they still returned to the center of the pinecones when they had been moved from the hive
What is associative learning?
learning to associate one feature of the environment with another
What are the 2 types of associative learning?
What is Operant Conditioning?
trial and error learning
associating a behavior with a reward or punishment
---->ex: the skinner box- if the rat pushed the button at a green light- reward food... if pushed at a red light punishment- no food or electric shock
the rat over time learns when is good to push the button
ex: learning what to eat is operant conditioning
What is Classical Conditioning?
Also called Pavlovian Conditioning
Associate a "neutral stimulus" with a "significant stimulus"
---->pavlov's dogs associated bell ringing (neutral stimulus) with food (significant stimulus)
connect a reflex behavior (salivating) to associated stimulus
What is Social Behavior?
Interactions between individuals
What are the types of social behavior?
What is Agonistic behavior?
Behavior in animals, often a competition, which by strength or something determines the winner that will gain access to a resource such as food or a mate
What is Dominance?
Social Ranking among animals
What is cooperation?
Animals working together to accomplish something
What is Altruism?
selflessness- rarer in animals
an animal risks its chances of dying to save another
is it worth it? find out by Hamiltons rule
What is communication
the transmission, reception and responce to signals
autitory: hearing- loud calls of birds may attract mates
chemical: pheromones- moths give of pheromones to attract mates
What is cognition?
the ability of an animals nervous system to percieve, store, process and use info gathered by sensory receptors
Explain Problem Solving?
the nervous system processes information to help the animal think to solve the problem
ex: chimps learn to use tools to crack open nuts
What is foraging?
behavior associated with recognizing, searching for, capturing, and consuming food