The Cutaneous Membrane (skin)

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  1. Integumentary system major components
    • The cutaneous membrane (skin)
    • Accessory structures
  2. The cutaneous membrane (skin)
    includes epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis (subcutaneous) layers
  3. Accessory structures
    includes hair, nails, and multicellular exocrine glands
  4. Functions of skin and subcutaneous tissue
    • protection (prevents loss of body fluids, inhibits invasion of bacteria, and filters out UV light rays; basically keeps insides in and outside out)
    • excretion (sweat glands allow for perspiration and loss of water, salt, urea)
    • thermal regulation
    • storage of nutrients - lipids
    • synthesis of vitamin D3 (sunshine)
    • perception of the environment via sensory receptors (Pacinian corpuscles - detects deep pressure in reticular layer of dermis; Meissner's corpuscle - detects pressure/light touch in dermal papilla)
  5. The epidermis
    • outer layer of skin
    • stratified squamous epithelium with keratin - these epithelial cells are also called keratinocytes
    • made up of 5 layers
  6. Layers of epidermis
    • Stratum germinativum
    • Stratum spinosum
    • Stratum granulosum
    • Stratum lucidum
    • Stratum corneum
  7. Stratum germinativum (stratum basale)
    • contain the basal (stem) cells that constantly divide giving rise to keratinocytes
    • contains melanocytes providing brown/black pigment to skin
    • unique pattern of epidermal ridges formed from underlying dermal papilla = fingerprints
  8. Stratum spinosum
    • fourth layer
    • spiney shaped cells derived from division of basal cells
    • Langerhan cells = macrophage type immune cells
  9. Stratum granulosum
    • third layer
    • production of keratin and keratohyalin granules occur eventually killing cell
  10. Stratum lucidum
    • second layer - lighter layer, like translucent
    • glassy layer of flattened cels seen in the thick skin of the palms and soles
  11. Stratum corneum
    • top layer
    • consists of tightly packed dead keratinocytes full of keratin
    • takes about 15-30 days for cells to move from basal layer to this layer
    • take about 2 weeks for cells in this layer to be shed
  12. Thin skin vs. thick skin
    • thin skin: less stratum corneum and hair
    • thick skin: more stratum corneum and no hair
  13. The Dermis
    • Middle layer of skin
    • composed of papillary and reticular layers
  14. Papillary Layer of Dermis
    • has dermal papilla that project into epidermis giving rise to epidermal ridges - fingerprints!
    • contains blood vessels and nerves that supply surface of skin
  15. Reticular Layer of Dermis
    • composed of dense irregular connective tissue
    • bundles of collagen fibers extend into reticular layer and subcutaneous layer
    • all other cells of connective tissue proper also located here
    • effects of aging, hormones, and UV rays reduce amount of elastin causing "wrinkles"
  16. Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer)
    • consists of loose (areolar) and adipose connective tissue and contains large arteries and veins
    • hypodermic needles used for subcutaneous injections of drugs
Card Set
The Cutaneous Membrane (skin)
Anatomy Cutaneous Membrane
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