Accessory Epidermal Derivatives

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Accessory Epidermal Derivatives
2011-09-13 22:31:40
hair fingernails toesnails exocrine glands anatomy body

Anatomy Accessory Epidermal Derivatives
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  1. Exocrine glands in accessory structures
    • sebaceous (oil) glands
    • aprocrine sweat glands
    • merocrine sweat glands
    • mammary glands
    • ceruminous glands
  2. Sebaceous (oil) glands
    • secretes sebum into hair follicle
    • sebaceous follicles are sebaceous glands that empty directly onto surface of skin - not into a hair follicle
  3. Apocrine sweat glands
    • abundant only in armpits, around nipples, and in groin
    • secretes a sticky, cloudy and odorous secretion into hair follicles
    • active at puberty and beyond
  4. Merocrine sweat glands
    • widely distributed
    • secretes water and electrolytes
    • water evaporation on skin surface allows for cooling of skin and body
  5. Mammary glands
    • located in breast tissue
    • development and secretions controlled by pituitary and sex hormones
    • basically - modified sweat glands that produce milk
  6. Ceruminous glands
    • located in external ear
    • secretes cerumen (i.e. earwax)
  7. Structural elements comprising the hair follicle
    • hair root
    • hair shaft
    • cuticle
    • cortex
    • medulla
    • hair papilla
    • hair matrix
    • arrector pili muscles
    • melanocytes
  8. Hair root
    in the follicle
  9. Hair shaft
    beyond the root, above sebaceous gland and skin
  10. Cuticle
    helps coat the hair
  11. Cortex
    • cell for keritinization process
    • contains hard keratin
  12. Medulla
    • cell for keritinization process
    • contains soft keratin
  13. Hair papilla
    connective tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves
  14. Hair matrix
    • surrounds papilla
    • location where basal cells divide, migrate upward and cause hair growth
    • cells in the center form the medulla whereas more peripherally located cells form the cortex
  15. Arrector pili muscles
    • responds to emotional states or temperature
    • causes goosebumps!
  16. Melanocytes
    • pigment producing cells located in the papilla providing hair color
    • decreased melanocyte activity causes the gray hair associated with aging