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freuds 5 stages , developemental theory
- Oral stage (birth to 1 year)
- Anal stage (1 to 3 years)
- Phallic stage (3 to 6 years)
- Latency stage (6 to 11 years)
- Genital stage (11 years on)
freud defense mechanisms
- Reaction formation
stuck in one stage?
- unconscious motives and conflicts.
- in the importance of early childhood.
- that development occurs in fixed stages.
- on fantasies and symbolic meanings of events.
- on subjective rather than objective methods.
structure of personality
- Id Pleasure principle Primary process thinking
- UnconsciousWell below surface of awareness; difficult to retrieve
- Ego Reality principle Secondary process thinking
- Superego Moral imperatives Ideals
theory of Cognitive development
- development consists of mental adaptations to new observations and experiences.
- takes two forms:
- Assimilation: Absorbing new information into existing cognitive
- Accommodation: Modifying existing cognitive structures in response to
- experience and new information
Stages of Development
- Sensorimotor (0-2): object permanence
- Preoperational (2-7): accelerated use of symbols and language
- (autobiographical memory of the events in their lives)
- Concrete Operational (7-11): understanding of conservation, identity and
- serial ordering
- Formal Operational (12+): abstract reasoning, ability to compare and
- Focuses on the individual’s developing relationships with others in social world
- Eight stages - development continues over life span
- Crisis at each stage of development
- Trust vs. Mistrust
- Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt
- Initiative vs. Guilt
- Identity vs. Role confusion
- Intimacy vs. Isolation
- Generativity vs. Stagnation
- Integrity vs. Despair
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