LF/W Unit 1

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  1. health
    • overall condition of a person’s body or mind and to the presence or absence of illness or injury
    • Differs based on factors beyond your control
  2. wellness
    • optimal health and vitality
    • determined by the decisions you make about the way you live
  3. enhanced wellness
    making conscious decisions to control one’s risk factors that contribute to illness and injury
  4. 6 dimensions of wellness
    • Physical wellness
    • Emotional wellness
    • Intellectual wellness
    • Spiritual wellness
    • Interpersonal wellness
    • Environmental wellness
  5. occupational wellness
    the level of happiness and fulfillment you gain through your work
  6. financial wellness
    your ability to live within your means and manage your money
  7. life expectancy doubling gives rise to these emergences of new major health threats
    • Heart disease
    • Cancer
    • Stroke
  8. the National Healthy People Initiative
    aims to prevent disease and improve Americans’ quality of life
  9. goal of the National Healthy People Initiative
    • Increase quality and years of healthy life
    • Eliminate health disparities among Americans
  10. behaviors that contribute to wellness
    • Be physically active
    • Choose a healthy diet
    • Maintain a healthy body weight
    • Manage stress effectively
    • Avoid tobacco and drug use and limit alcohol consumption
    • Protect yourself from disease and injury
    • Develop meaningful relationships
    • Learn about the health care system
    • Plan for successful aging
    • Care for the environment
  11. things to consider before you start process
    • Examine your current health habits
    • –Consider how your current lifestyle is affecting your health
    • Choose a target behavior
    • –Pick one behavior to change
    • Learn about your target behavior
    • –Take into consideration the risks and rewards of changing that behavior
    • Find help through resources available
  12. how to build motivation to change
  13. Examine the pros and cons of change
    • –Evaluate the short- and long-term benefits and costs
    • Boost self-efficacy through:
    • Locus of Control
    • –Internal or external
    • Visualization and Self-talk
    • –Seeing yourself engaging in a new and healthy behavior
    • Role models and other supportive individuals
    • Identify and overcome key barriers to change
  14. stages of change
    • precontemplation
    • contemplation
    • preparation
    • action
    • maintenance
    • termination
  15. precontemplation
    people do not think they have a problem and have no intention of changing behavior
  16. contemplation
    people know they have a problem and are intending to take action within 6 months
  17. preparation
    people plan to take action within a month
  18. action
    people outwardly modify their behavior and environment
  19. maintenance
    successful behavior change for 6 months or longer
  20. termination
    people are no longer tempted by the behavior which they have changed
  21. steps to recover from a relapse
    • 1.Forgive yourself
    • 2.Give yourself credit for your progress you have already made
    • 3.Move on
  22. steps to creating a personalized plan
    • 1. Monitor your behavior and gather data
    • 2. Analyze the data and identify patterns
    • 3. Be smart and set realistic, specific, measurable attainable, time frame-specific goals
    • 4. Devise a strategy or plan of action
    • •Get what you need
    • •Modify your environment
    • •Control related habits
    • •Reward yourself
    • •Involve people around you
    • •Plan for challenges
    • 5. Make a personal contract
  23. how to stay with your new change
    • Social influences
    • Levels of motivation and commitment
    • Choice of techniques and level of effort
    • Stress barrier
    • Procrastinating, rationalizing, and blaming
  24. physical activity
    movement carried out by the skeletal muscles that requires energy
  25. exercise
    planned, structured, repetitive movement intended to improve or maintain physical fitness
  26. levels of fitness depends on what?
    • Heart’s ability to pump blood
    • Energy-generating capacity of the cells
  27. why is physical activity essential to health?
    confers a wide variety of health benefits
  28. how often should adults do resistive activity?
    at least twice a week
  29. 5 components of fitness that help establish health benefits
    • Cardiorespiratory Fitness
    • Muscular Strength
    • Muscular Endurance
    • Flexibility
    • Body Composition
  30. what happens when cardiorespiratory fitness improves?
    • The heart pumps more blood per heartbeat
    • Resting heart rate slows
    • Blood volume increases
    • Blood supply to tissue improves
    • The body can cool itself better
    • Resting blood pressure decreases
  31. muscular strength
    the amount of force a muscle can produce in a single maximum effort
  32. muscular endurance
    the ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension for a given time.
  33. benefits of muscular strength and endurance
    • Increased body mass
    • Increased metabolism
    • Increased bone density
    • Reduced effects of sarcopenia
    • Improved self-confidence and ability to manage stress
    • Improved posture and reduction of low back pain
  34. flexibility
    • ability to move the joints through their full range of motion
    • needed in everyday routines
  35. factors that could affect flexibility
    • joint structure
    • length and elasticity of connective tissue
    • nervous system activity
  36. benefits of flexibility
    • Lowered risk of back injuries
    • Promotion of good posture and decreased risk of other joint injuries
    • Reduction in age-related stiffness
  37. body composition
    The proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, water) in the body
  38. what is a healthy body composition comprised of?
    • high levels of fat-free mass
    • an acceptable low level of body fat
  39. effects of too much body fat
    • Heart disease
    • Insulin resistance
    • High blood pressure
    • Stroke
    • Joint problems
    • Type II Diabetes
    • Gallbladder disease
    • Cancer
    • Back pain
  40. best way to lose fat
    • exercise
    • sensible diet
  41. speed
    the ability to perform a movement in a short amount of time.
  42. power
    the ability to exert force rapidly, based on a combination of strength and speed
  43. agility
    the ability to change the position of the body quickly and accurately
  44. balance
    the ability to maintain equilibrium while moving or while stationary
  45. coordination
    the ability to perform a motor tasks accurately and smoothly using body movements and the senses
  46. reaction and movement time
    the ability to respond and react quickly to a stimulus.
  47. goal of physical training
    produce these long-term changes and improvements in the body’s functioning
  48. training principles
    • specificity
    • progressive overload
    • reversibility
    • individual differences
  49. specificity
    the training principle that the body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it
  50. progressive overload
    the training principle that placing increasing amounts of stress on the body cause adaptations that improve fitness
  51. reversibility
    the training principle that the body will return to its original homeostatic state when amount of physical stress is removed for a specific time
  52. individual differences
    each individual’s body adapts to the stress differently
  53. to develop particular fitness or skill component
    • must perform exercises designed specifically for that component
    • this is the principle of specificity
  54. weight training
    • develop muscular strength
    • will not be very effective in improving cardiorespiratory endurance or flexibility
  55. well-rounded exercise program
    includes all components of fitness designed to improve different parts of the body or towards specific sport activities
  56. why amount of overload
    important since too little will not have much effect upon fitness levels and too much will increase the likelihood of an injury
  57. progression
    critical since exercising at the same levels will not provide adaptations and can lead to a plateau
  58. FITT
    • principle for overload
    • frequency:how often
    • intensity:how hard
    • time:how long (duration)
    • type:mode of activity
  59. cardiorespiratory endurance
    The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity
  60. cardiorespiratory system
    • Consists of the heart, the blood vessels, and the respiratory system
    • transports oxygen, nutrients, and other key substances to the organs and tissues that need them
    • picks up waste products to where they can be used or expelled
  61. characteristics of the heart
    • 4 chambers
    • Size of a fist
    • Located just beneath the sternum
  62. function of the heart
    pump blood through 2 separate circulatory systems
  63. pulmonary circulation
    Right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs
  64. systematic circulation
    Left side of the heart pumps blood through the rest of the body
  65. blood pressure
    the force exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessels, created by the heart
  66. pressure methods of the heart
    • sytolic (systole)
    • diastolic (diastole)
  67. systolic (systole)
    heart's contraction
  68. diastolic (diastole)
    heart's relaxation
  69. sinotrial (SA) node
    bundle of specialized cells located in the right atrium that initiates the heartbeat
  70. arteries
    carry blood away from the heart
  71. veins
    carry blood back to the heart
  72. metabolism
    the sum of all chemical processes necessary to maintain the body
  73. metabolic rate
    the efficiency at which your body uses energy
  74. atp (adenosine triphosphate)
    the basic form of energy used by cells
  75. three energy systems that create ATP and help fuel cellular activity
    • immediate energy system (explosive)
    • nonoxidative energy system(anaerobic)
    • oxidative system (aerobic)
  76. immediate energy system (explosive)
    • 10 or fewer seconds
    • ATP stores and creatine phosphate (cp)
  77. nonoxidative energy system (anaerobic)
    • 10 to 20 seconds
    • creates ATP by breaking dorn glucose and glycogen
  78. oxidative energy system (aerobic)
    • any activity greater than 120 seconds
    • oxygen required to create ATP
    • mitochondira
    • maximal oxygen consumption or VO2max
  79. how to get your pulse
    Count beats for 10 seconds and multiply the result by 6 to get rate in beats per minute
  80. cross-training
    can help boost enjoyment and prevent injuries
  81. maximum heart rate (MHR)
    220 - your age
  82. results of hot weather and heat stress
    • dehydration
    • heat cramps
    • heat axhaustion
    • heatstroke
  83. results of cold weather conditions
    • drop in body temperature
    • hypothermia
    • frostbite
    • wind chill concept
  84. RICE
    • rest
    • ice
    • compression
    • elevation
  85. muscles
    40% of body mass
  86. benefits of well-developed muscles
    • daily routines
    • protection from injury
    • enhancement of your overall well-being
  87. muscular strength
    the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort
  88. muscular endurance
    the ability to resist fatigue while holding or repeating a muscular contraction
  89. muscle fibers
    muscle cells connected in bundles
  90. myofibrils
    smaller protein structures that make up muscle fibers
  91. hypertrophy
    the development of large muscle fibers
  92. atrophy
    the reduction of the size of the muscle fiber due to inactivity or injury
  93. hyperplasia
    the increase in the number of muscle fibers
  94. slow-twitch fibers
    • Fatigue resistant
    • Don’t contract as rapidly and forcefully as fast-twitch fibers
    • Rely primarily on the aerobic energy system
  95. fast-twitch fibers
    • Contract rapidly and forcefully
    • Fatigue more quickly than slow-twitch fibers
    • Rely more on the anaerobic energy system
  96. motor unit
    made up of a nerve connected to a number of muscle fibers
  97. motor unit recruitment
    • happens when strength is required
    • nerves assist with the action
  98. muscle learning
    the ability to improve the body’s ability to recruit motor units
  99. muscular strength assessment
    • measuring the maximum amount of weight a person can lift one time
    • estimated maximum test (submaximal lift)
  100. muscular endurance assessment
    counting the maximum number of repetitions of a muscular contraction a person can perform to fatigue
  101. static (isometric)
    exercise involves a muscle contraction without a change in the length of the muscle or joint angle
  102. dynamic (isotonic)
    • exercise involves a muscle contraction with a change in the length of the muscle
    • Muscle contraction without a change in the length of the muscle or the angle in the joint
    • Require no equipment
    • Build strength rapidly
    • Useful for rehabilitation
  103. types of dynamic (isotonic) training
    • concentric contraction
    • eccentric contraction
    • Muscle contraction with a change in the length of the muscle
    • Can be performed without or with equipment
    • Can be used to develop strength or endurance
    • Use full range of motion
    • Are more popular with the general population
  104. warm up
    should be performed prior to each weight training session
  105. cool down
    weight training, relax for 5-10 minutes by stretching, which could possibly prevent soreness
  106. weight training safety
    • use proper lifting techniques
    • use spotters and collars with free weights
    • be alert for injuries
  107. flexibility
    • the ability of a joint to move through its normal range of motion
    • highly adaptable fitness component and responds well when utilized as part of a fitness program
    • joint specific, meaning that you must work all major joints, not just a few
  108. two types of flexibility
    • static flexibility
    • dynamic flexibility
  109. static flexibility
    • ability to hold an extended position at one end in a joint’s range of motion
    • Dependent on your ability to tolerate stretched muscles, joint structure, and tightness of connective tissues
  110. dynamic flexibility
    • ability to move a joint through its range of motion with little resistance
    • important for daily activities and sports
  111. what affects joint flexibility
    • joint structure
    • muscle elasticity and length
    • nervous system
  112. joint structures
    • Hinge joint
    • Ball and socket
    • Heredity plays a part
  113. muscle elasticity
    • Collagen
    • Elastin
    • Elastic elongation
    • Plastic elongation
  114. nervous system
    • Proprioceptors
    • Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
  115. FITT to develope flexibility
    • F: 2-3 days per week (minimum)
    • I: stretch to point of mild discomfort, not pain
    • T: hold for 15-30 sec & perform 2-4 times
    • T: stretching exercise that focus on major joints
  116. types of stretching techniques
    • Static Stretching
    • Ballistic Stretching
    • Dynamic (Functional) Stretching
    • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
    • Passive vs. Active Stretching
  117. causes of lower-back pain
    • Weak and inflexible muscles
    • Poor posture
    • Poor body mechanics during activities
  118. fuction and structure of spine
    • Provides structural support for the body
    • Surrounds and protects the spinal cord
    • Supports body weight
    • Serves as attachment site for muscles, tendons, ligaments
    • Allows movement of neck and back in all directions
  119. core muscles
    those in the abdomen, pelvic floor, sides of the trunk, back, buttocks, hip, and pelvis
  120. function of core muscles
    stabilize the spine and help transfer force between the upper body and lower body
  121. results from lack of core muscles
    create an unstable spine and stress muscles and joints
  122. risk factors of back pain
    • Greater than 34 years old
    • Degenerative diseases (arthritis or osteoporosis)
    • Family or personal history
    • Sedentary lifestyle
  123. underlying causes of back pain
    • Poor muscle endurance and strength
    • Excessive body weight
    • Poor posture or body position at rest
    • Poor posture body mechanics during activity
    • Previous injuries
  124. how to prevent lower-back pain
    • Maintain a healthy weight
    • Stop smoking
    • Reduce stress
    • Avoid sitting, standing, or working in the same position for too long
    • Use a supportive seat and a medium-firm mattress
    • Warm up thoroughly before exercising
    • Progress gradually when improving strength and fitness
  125. symptoms of acute back pain
    • Pain
    • Muscle spasms
    • Stiffness
    • Inflammation
  126. treatment of acute back pain
    • Apply heat or cold
    • Over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medication (ibuprofen or naproxen)
    • Gentle flexibility
    • Bed rest
    • See physician if pain doesn't resolve within a short time
  127. protecting back when sleeping
    • Lie on your side with your knees and hips bent
    • If you lie on your back, place a pillow under your knees.
  128. protecting back when sitting
    • Sit with your lower back slightly rounded, knees bent and feet flat on the floor
    • Alternate crossing your legs or use a footrest to keep your knees higher than your hips.
  129. protecting back when standing
    • Keep your weight mainly on your heels, with one or both knees slightly bent
    • Try to keep your lower back flat (not arched) by placing one foot on a stool
  130. protecting back when walking
    Keep your toes pointed straight ahead, your back flat, head up and chin in.
  131. protecting back when lifting
    Bend at the knees and hips rather than at the waist and lift gradually using your leg muscles
Card Set
LF/W Unit 1
Chapters 1-5
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