Occurs when there is any type of alveolar blockage or improper ventilation of the alveoli.
Atelectasis (collapsed lung)
What 3 signs are the hallmarks of the severity of atelectasis?
Tachypnea, dyspnea, and mild to moderate hypoxemia
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma caused by a microbial agent.
What organism is most likely to cause pneumonia?
Streptococcus which is pneumococcus
Hospital aquired pneumonia is caused most frequently by which organism?
Occurs in those with lung cancer, leukemia, burns, debilitated patients, patients receiving antimicrobial therapy.
Gerontological considerations: how often should you offer pneumonia vaccine?
Every 5 years
An infectious disease that affects the lung parenchyma but it can also be transmitted to other parts of the body including the kidneys, bones, and lymph nodes.
When does the initial infection begin after exposure to TB?
When is the TB test read?
What is a significant reaction for a TB skin test?
5 mm or greater for a person at risk, and 10 mm or greater is significant in others.
A chest x-ray is then performed
What is treatment for TB?
Chemotherapeutic agents for 6-12 months
INH, Rifampin, pyrazinamide, streptomycin daily for 8 weeks
Streptomycin-- ringing in ears
The patient is non ifectious after 2-3 weeks of treatment
Inflammation of both layers of the pleura (visceral and parietal)
Pain with respiratory movement, it usually occurs only on one side. Pain may become minimal when breath is held, or may radiate to the shoulders or abdomen.
a larger than normal amount of fluid collects in the pleural space it is usually secondary to other diseases such as heart failure, TB, pneumonia, Pulmonary infections, PE and neoplastic (cancer) tumors
What is the treatment for pleural effusion?
an accumulation of thick purulent fluid within the pleural space.
collection of fluid in the lung tissue and/ or alveolar space, generally caused by abnormal cardiac function.
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lung tissue, the alveolar space, or both. It is a severe, light threatening condition.
What do these s & s indicate: severe
respiratory distress and a foamy, frothy sputum which the patient coughs up or the nurse suctions.
Arterial PaO2 falls below 50 mm Hg and arterial PaCO2 rises to greater than 50 mm Hg. We confirm this with blood gases.
Acture respiratory failure
What are the four major causes of ARF?
decreased respiratory drive caused by severe brain injury
multiple sclerosis which causes lesions of the brain stem
_______ is a result of a trigger such as an acute lung injury. The patient has a sudden and progressive pulmonary edema, increased bilateral infiltrates, hypoxemia not managed by O2 therapy.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
more common and occurs from an existing cardiac or pulmonary condition. It is defined as an increase in the pulmonary arterial pressure exceeding 30 mm Hg which are measured through right sided heart catheterization.
Seconday pulmonary hypertension
a condition in which the right ventricle of the heart enlarges
Cor pulmonale (pulmonary heart disease)
What is the most frequent cause of Cor pulmonale (pulmonary heart disease)?`
Which oxygen mask is the most reliable and accurate for delivering precise concentration?