Assessment in Psychology
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Scientist Practitoner Model (S-P)
- 1-A model of how to 'do' professional psychology
- 2-Professional psychology practice in an applied Science
- 3-S-P model is application of scietifically driven aproaches to practice of psychology
An application of scientifically driven approaches to the practice of psychology that encourages practitioners to view & treat clients from a hypotesis testing perspective with evidence based interventions. (also known as the baltamore)
Why is the S-P model important?
- 1-To improve psychological treatments
- 2-To demonstrate accountability for change
- 3-To enhance clinical science
Basis for explaining effectivness with cliencts, feeds back into research as evidence from practice in incoporated into future studies/treatments.
Differnce between efficacy and effiectivness in psych
- Efficacy-treatment in a controlled setting
- Effectivness-treatment in a real world setting.
Limitations of S-P model
- 1-Lack of funding
- 2-Lack of agency support
- 3-Research not in the job discription
- 4-Questions whether clinical work & research are compatible (client first).
- 5-Beleif that he approach is unethical
History of the S-P model and paradigm it fits best with?
- 1950s S-P model has its roots in Bhv therapies.
- 1-Operant Conditioning explains how some MI deveop and are maintained (reinforcers/punishment).
- 2-Respondent conditioning Classical conditioning, how a stimulus is associated with a response (phobia?)
- 1-Social learning (Bandura) observing others & vicarious learning.
- 2-Cognitive behavioural modification (Beck) CBT is very compatible with the S-P model
Major Features of Behavioural Therapy
- 1-Attempts to normalise (understand) bhv.
- 2-Emphasises what MAINTAINS bhv, rather than what CAUSES it, and how to MODIFY these factors.
- 3-Treatment requires analyis
- 4-Interventions have +ve & -ve side effects
- 5- Applied science approach.
SORK analysis (what does it stand for?)
- S-Stimuli (historical/contxtual/immediate)
- O-Organismic (whats happening been bhv occurs, ie tiered, hungery)
- R- Response
- K-Contingences (relationships b/w response and
- consequence, what is the functon of this consequence +ve reinforcers, -ve reinforcer)
- *OPERANT CONDITIONING is the basis of SORCK
Functional Analysis in assessment (SORCK and Operant Conditioning)
- 1-Bhv produced by its consequences
- 2-bhvis voluntary
- 3-bhv/actions act upon environment
- 4-if change in bhv + or - ly reinforced, bhv more likely to occure again in future
- 5-If bhv punished, less likely to occur again.
Case Conceptualisation (4 Ps)
- 1-Predisposing factors
- 2-Precipitating factors
- 3-Perpetuatng factors
- 4-Protective facors
4 elements of assessment DOFC
- 1-Data gathering
- 2-Obtaining a baseline for ongoing evaluation
- 3-Functional conceptualisation of problem
- 4-Communication of assessment results.
Methods of Clinical Assessment
- 1-Intake Interview
- 2-Self-Report measures
- 5-Behavioural by-products
Purpose & Function of Intake Interview (4 main points)
- 1-To obtain info from client about nature of presenting problems and extent to which the problems have nterfered in their life and aused distress
- 2-To assess diagnostic status
- 3-To assess eligibility for treatment (clients commitment and therapists suitability for their problem
- 4-To determine client's goals and expectations: (
- unrealistic timeframes, beleifs about controlling others, or therpist 'curing' them)
What are behavioural by-products?
Refers to consequences of specified bhv. Physiological measures referr t the physical changes that come about ith the specifed bhv
Assessment techniques in Psychology (tests/observations)
- 2-Observation skills
- 3-Objective tests
- 4-Projective tests
- 5-Brain imaging
- 6-Physiological Assessment
Advantages of Case Studies
- 1-Take into account individual differences
- 2-Important sourse of hypotheses
- 3-Development of therapy techniques
- 4-Permis study of rare phenomena
- 5-Persuasive and motivational value
- 6-Demonstrates Changes and stabiliy of bhv.
Disadvantages of case studies
- 1-Unable to receal subject characterists that may interact with treatment
- 2-No indication of the generalizability of results
- 3-Can be time and resourse intensive
Categorical approach to classifications
- Distinctions among members of different categoies are qualitative. Yes or No categories, eg you have an infection or you don't, no partial possibilites.
- *About WHAT KIND not HOW MANY
Dimensional Approach t classification
Classifies in terms of continuous dimension. Focus on a particular characteristic and asks HOW MUCH if that charcteristic the object/person has (eg, intellegence)
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