Assessment in Psychology

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Assessment in Psychology
2011-09-14 10:09:10
clinical assessment

Assessment in Psychology 3009PSY
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  1. Scientist Practitoner Model (S-P)
    • 1-A model of how to 'do' professional psychology
    • 2-Professional psychology practice in an applied Science
    • 3-S-P model is application of scietifically driven aproaches to practice of psychology

    Formal definition: An application of scientifically driven approaches to the practice of psychology that encourages practitioners to view & treat clients from a hypotesis testing perspective with evidence based interventions. (also known as the baltamore)
  2. Why is the S-P model important?
    • 1-To improve psychological treatments
    • 2-To demonstrate accountability for change
    • 3-To enhance clinical science

    Basis for explaining effectivness with cliencts, feeds back into research as evidence from practice in incoporated into future studies/treatments.
  3. Differnce between efficacy and effiectivness in psych
    • Efficacy-treatment in a controlled setting
    • Effectivness-treatment in a real world setting.
  4. Limitations of S-P model
    • 1-Lack of funding
    • 2-Lack of agency support
    • 3-Research not in the job discription
    • 4-Questions whether clinical work & research are compatible (client first).
    • 5-Beleif that he approach is unethical
  5. History of the S-P model and paradigm it fits best with?
    • 1950s S-P model has its roots in Bhv therapies.
    • 1-Operant Conditioning explains how some MI deveop and are maintained (reinforcers/punishment).
    • 2-Respondent conditioning Classical conditioning, how a stimulus is associated with a response (phobia?)

    • 1960-1970s
    • 1-Social learning (Bandura) observing others & vicarious learning.
    • 2-Cognitive behavioural modification (Beck) CBT is very compatible with the S-P model
  6. Major Features of Behavioural Therapy
    • 1-Attempts to normalise (understand) bhv.
    • 2-Emphasises what MAINTAINS bhv, rather than what CAUSES it, and how to MODIFY these factors.
    • 3-Treatment requires analyis
    • 4-Interventions have +ve & -ve side effects
    • 5- Applied science approach.
  7. SORK analysis (what does it stand for?)
    • S-Stimuli (historical/contxtual/immediate)
    • O-Organismic (whats happening been bhv occurs, ie tiered, hungery)
    • R- Response
    • C-Consequences
    • K-Contingences (relationships b/w response and
    • consequence, what is the functon of this consequence +ve reinforcers, -ve reinforcer)
    • *OPERANT CONDITIONING is the basis of SORCK
  8. Functional Analysis in assessment (SORCK and Operant Conditioning)
    • 1-Bhv produced by its consequences
    • 2-bhvis voluntary
    • 3-bhv/actions act upon environment
    • 4-if change in bhv + or - ly reinforced, bhv more likely to occure again in future
    • 5-If bhv punished, less likely to occur again.
  9. Case Conceptualisation (4 Ps)
    • 1-Predisposing factors
    • 2-Precipitating factors
    • 3-Perpetuatng factors
    • 4-Protective facors
  10. 4 elements of assessment DOFC
    • 1-Data gathering
    • 2-Obtaining a baseline for ongoing evaluation
    • 3-Functional conceptualisation of problem
    • 4-Communication of assessment results.
  11. Methods of Clinical Assessment
    • 1-Intake Interview
    • 2-Self-Report measures
    • 3-Self-monitoring
    • 4-Observatons
    • 5-Behavioural by-products
    • 6-Physiological
  12. Purpose & Function of Intake Interview (4 main points)
    • 1-To obtain info from client about nature of presenting problems and extent to which the problems have nterfered in their life and aused distress
    • 2-To assess diagnostic status
    • 3-To assess eligibility for treatment (clients commitment and therapists suitability for their problem
    • 4-To determine client's goals and expectations: (
    • unrealistic timeframes, beleifs about controlling others, or therpist 'curing' them)
  13. What are behavioural by-products?
    Refers to consequences of specified bhv. Physiological measures referr t the physical changes that come about ith the specifed bhv
  14. Assessment techniques in Psychology (tests/observations)
    • 1-Interveiws
    • 2-Observation skills
    • 3-Objective tests
    • 4-Projective tests
    • 5-Brain imaging
    • 6-Physiological Assessment
  15. Advantages of Case Studies
    • 1-Take into account individual differences
    • 2-Important sourse of hypotheses
    • 3-Development of therapy techniques
    • 4-Permis study of rare phenomena
    • 5-Persuasive and motivational value
    • 6-Demonstrates Changes and stabiliy of bhv.
  16. Disadvantages of case studies
    • 1-Unable to receal subject characterists that may interact with treatment
    • 2-No indication of the generalizability of results
    • 3-Can be time and resourse intensive
  17. Categorical approach to classifications
    • Distinctions among members of different categoies are qualitative. Yes or No categories, eg you have an infection or you don't, no partial possibilites.
    • *About WHAT KIND not HOW MANY
  18. Dimensional Approach t classification
    Classifies in terms of continuous dimension. Focus on a particular characteristic and asks HOW MUCH if that charcteristic the object/person has (eg, intellegence)