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A membrane that will pass some atoms or molecules but not others.
- Movement of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane (as of a living cell) into a solution of higher solute concentration that tends to equalize the
- concentrations of solute on the two sides of the membrane.
- Reverse osmosis occurs when the water is moved across the membrane against the concentration gradient, from lower concentration to higher
- concentration. In reverse osmosis, pressure is exerted on the side with the concentrated solution to force the water molecules across the membrane to the
- fresh water side.
- Deionized water is a type of purified water with mineral ions (salts) removed. These mineral ions include sodium, calcium, iron, copper, chloride, and
What is the difference between RO and DI water?
The technique used to remove the impurities/ions. RO uses a semi-permeable membrane which is fine enough so that essentially only water molecules will pass through it. As a result you produce about 3 times as much waste water as purified water. DI uses ion exchange resins, which exchange the ions in the water, such as iron, magnesium, copper for hydrogen and nitrate, sulphate, phosphate for hydroxide.
A USP grade water produced from water meeting U.S. EPA standards for potable drinking water which has microbiological content under control and is free from foreign substances.
Water for Injection
- Sterile Water for Injection, USP, is sterile, nonpyrogenic, distilled water. No antimicrobial or other substance has been added. The pH is
- 5.5 (5.0 to 7.0). The osmolarity is 0.
- Produced using a pure steam generator which a has been
- supplied deionized water.
Uses of Clean Steam
The main use of clean steam in pharmaceutical manufacting is for the sterilization of products and/ or equipment.
Modular cells for use in high purity water systems as a polishing de-ioniser when fed with permeate from a Reverse Osmosis system, thus replacing the requirement for twin bed and mixed bed de-ionisers.