CH 22A Urinary System
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What are the structures of the Urinary System
- 1. Kidneys
- 2. Ureters
- 3. Urethra
- 4. Urinary Bladder
- 5. Urine
What are the 6 Functions of the Urinary System?
- 1. Eliminates wastes and foreign substances as urine.
- 2. Regulates blood's chemical composition
- 3. Regulates blood pH.
- 4. Regulates blood volume and fluid balance
- 5. Regulates blood pressure
- 6. Maintains homeostasis
What are the principal organs of the urinary system, which both processes blood and forms urine to be excreted. These structures are reddish paired organs located bilaterally in the upper lumbar region of the spine.
What are the Kidneys?
1. The kidneys are located behing the ________ or abdominal peritoneum and are surrounded by a fibrous ____ ______.
2. They are also embedded in a adipose tissue called _____ ___ which serves as a barrier against trauma and infection.
3. Because of the presence of the liver the kidney on the _____ side is slightly lower that the one on the ____ side.
4. The _____ is the identation located in the medially concave region of the kidney where the _____ arteries, ____ veins, and the ______ enter and exit.
5. Each kidney is devided into two major regions, the ______ (outer region) and the _______ (inner region).
- 1. Retroperitoneal / Renal Capsule
- 2. Perirenal Fat
- 3. Right / Left
- 4. Hilum
- 5. Cortex / Medulla
The kidneys are composed of these filtering units. There are approximately 1.25 million in each kidney. Approximately 85% are located almost entirely in the renal cortex with the remainder in the Medulla.
Completed of three parts; the Glomerulus, the Bowman's capsule and the Renal Tubule.
What are Nephrons?
1. The _______ is formed by the afferent arterioles which branch into a tuftlike network of fine capillaries within Bowman's capsule.
2. Between the wall of the ______ and the Bowman's capsule is a ______ membrane.
3. This membrane contains pores that allow certain substances to be filtered out of the ______.
4. These substances include Water, _____, _____ amino acids and _____.
5. Blood ____ and large _____ are to large to fit through the membrane. ____ ____ is the force responsible for filtration.
- 1. Glomerulus
- 2. Glomerulus / filtration
- 3. Blood
- 4. Wastes / Ions / Glucose
- 5. Cells / Proteins / Blood Pressure
What are the three devisons of the Renal Tubuless of Nephrons located in Kidneys?
- 1. Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
- 2. Loop of Henle
- 3. Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
1. The hollow cup-shaped mouth of a nephron is called the _____ ______, where filtrate is collected for transport through the ______.
2. The _____ ______ and the Glomerulus are oftened referred to as the _____ corpuscle.
3. The Kidneys are the major _______ organs of the body.
4. The four systems that contribute to waste removal in the body are the ______ system, ______ system, ______ system and the Urinary System.
5. If a Kidney is removed, the other kidney will increase its filtering capacity to ____ percent of two normal kidneys.
- 1. Bowman's capsule / Blood
- 2. Bowman's capsule / Renal
- 3. Homeostatic
- 4. Respiratory / Integumentary / Digestive
- 5. 80%
1. The Renal Tubule is devided into the ______ and ______ tubule and the loop of ______.
2. The first part of the renal tubule, the _____ _____ tubule and is proximal to the Bowman's capsule.
3. The second part is the loop of ______ which consists of a descending limp, hairpin turn, and ascending limb. It also extends deep into the _______ .
4. The third part is the ______ _____ tubule is the portion just beyond the loop.
5. An important structure, the ______ _______, is found at the point where the afferent arteriole touches part of the Distal Convoluted Tuble.
- 1. Proximal / Distal / Henle
- 2. Proximal convoluted
- 3. Henle / Medulla
- 4. Distal Convoluted
- 5. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
A dozen or so triangular wedges that make up much of medullary tissue of the kidney, made up of numerous collecting tubules that organize themselves into the wedges.
What is the Medullary Pyramids?
1. The Medullary Pyramids narrow base, or ____ _____ faces toward the hilium.
2. Cortical tissue dips into the medulla between the pryamids and for areas known as _____ _____
- 1. Renal Papilla
- 2. Renal Columns
Located where the afferent arterioles touches the distal convoluted tuble (DCT), this structure within the kidneys is equpped with cells that measure blood pressure, the force behind filtration.
What is the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus?
1. The juxtaglomerular apparatus has two important structures; the ____________ cells and the _____ _____. The cells contain ____ granules that act as mechanoreceptors.
2. Renin converts angiotensinogen from the ____ into Angiotensin I. Angiotensin I, when transported through the _____ become Angiotensin II.
3. Angriotensin II caused secretion of _______, which increases sodium and _____ absorption.
4. This action increases _____ volume and _____ pressure.
5. This pathway is called the _____ -_____ -______ system.
- 1. Juxtaglomerular cells / Macula Densa / Renin
- 2. Liver / Lungs
- 3. Aldosterone / Water
- 4. Blood / Blood
- 5. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
One of the structures of the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus located in the ascending limb of Henle's loop. this structure contains dense, tightly packed cells that are chemorceptors, sensing the concentration of the filtrate as it passing through the tubule.
What is the Macula Densa?
1.The cells of the Macula Densa respond to a decrease in ______ by releasing ________ (hormonelike substances), which stimulate the secretion of renin.
2. In review, the -______ _____ monitor changes in blood pressure in the affernent arteriole;
3. While the _____ _____ monitors the concentration of the filtrate in the renal tuble.
4. Both respond be secreting _____, the mechoreceptor.
- 1. Sodium / Prostaglandins
- 2. Juxtaglommerular Appartus
- 3. Macula Densa
- 4. Renin
A duct made up of the distal tubules of several nephrons. They join larger ducts and become the renal papilla, the apex of each medullary pyramid.
What is the Collecting Duct?
1. Each Renal papilla protrudes into a small, cuplike structure called a _____, which are considered the beginning of the plumbing system. They are Major/Minor
2. Here is where urine leaves the ____ ____ and is collected for transport out of the body.
3. Several minor calyces join to form a major _____.
4. These structures come together to form large collection reservoir called the ____ ____, which is the upper region of the ureter.
- 1. Calyx
- 2. Renal Papilla
- 3. Calyx
- 4. Renal Pelvis
1. Oxygen-rich blood enters the kidneys by the ____ ____, where it branches off the abdominal aorta.
2. As the renal artery enters the _____, the artery becomes smaller, turning into the afferent arteroile.
3. The _____ ____ is a high-pressure vessel that feeds the _______ capillaries.
4. The afferent arteriole branches into a tuftlike network of fine capillaries within the Bowman's capsule called the ______.
5. At this juncture, blood leaves the ______ capillaries flows into efferent arterioles the moves into the _______ capillaries.
6. This placement of an ____ between the two capillary beds (____ and _____ capillaries) is unique and only in the kidney.
- 1. Renal Artery
- 2. Hilum
- 3. Afferent Arteriole / Glomerular
- 4. Glomerulas
- 5. Glomerular / Peritubular
- 6. Arteriole / Glomerular and Peritubular
What is the sequence of blood in the kidneys? (8 parts)
Renal Artery > Afferent Arteriole > Glomerulus > Efferent Arteriole > Peritubular Capillaries > Renal Venule > Renal Vein > Inferior Vena Cava
What is the sequence that represents how fluids flow in the nephron? (10 parts)
Bowman's Capsule > Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) > Loop of Henle > Distal Convoluted Tuble (DCT) > Collecting Duct > Renal Papilla > Minor Calyx > Major Calyx > Renal Pelvis > Ureter
1. The kidney does not selectively filter out only harmful or excess material. It filters our many ____ and _____ materials in blood plasma.
2. Important molecules are filtered are then reabsorbed by the _____ before the _____ reaches the end of the tubule and becomes urine.
3. This Filtration process includes three important and distinct steps for ______ and formation of ______.
4. The three steps are ____, _____ and _____ _____.
- 1. Wanted / Unwanted
- 2. Nephron / Filtrate
- 3. Filtration / Urine
- 4. Filtration / Reabsorption / Tubular Secretion
One of the steps of the Filtration Process, is the first step when Blood plasma enters and is filtered into the renal corpuscle via the glomeruli. The bloodstream retains proteins and formed elements of the blood that are too large to cross the membrane. Toxins, excess free ions, and nonessential substances such as urea, uric acid, ammonia, drug residue, excess minerals and water-soluble vitamins (especially B) are collected and eventually leave the body in the urine.
What is Filtration?
One of the steps of the Filtration Process, where approximately 99% of the fluids removed from blood plasma are reabsorbed. Process occurs when water and useful substances are reabsorbed from all parts of the renal tubule into peritubular blood. Majoritry of the body's water, glucose and amino acids is retained and returned to the blood.
What is Reabsorption?
One of the steps of the Filtration Process, this final phase means the movement of substances out of the blood and into tubular fluid called filtrate. Wastes are transported from the peritubular capillaries into the renal tubles for excretion.
Rid the body of toxic elements and controls blood PH.
What is Tubular Secretions?
1. Urine production begins in the ______ when blood enters and is filtered in the renal corpuscle.
2. Next, the filtered fluids, know as ______, enter the first section of the renal tubule, the ______ convoluted tubule.
3. The PVT feeds into ____ ___ ____, with its sharp turn and descending and ascending limbs, flowing into the DCT and into _____ _____ located in the medulla.
4. The collecting tubules route the filtrate into large _____ ducts. When the concentrated filtrate reaches the calyces, it is then called _______.
5. The _______ is the urine-manufacturing facility and the _______ is the urine-collecting facility.
6. Urine is drained by ______ activity from the _____ and _____ calyces and from the renal pelvis in the kidney down the ______ to the urinary bladder.
- 1. Cortex
- 2. Filtrate / Proximal
- 3. Loop of Henle / Collecting Tubules
- 4. Papillary / Urine
- 5. Cortex / Medulla
- 6. Peristaltic / Major and Minor / Ureter
Two slender hollow tubes approximately 10 inches long that transport urine formed by the kidneys. Similar to the kidneys, are located bilaterally.
Leaving the kidney at the renal pelvis, course medially into the pelvis until they reach the urinary bladder.
What are the Ureters?
1. Each ureter contains a specialized ______ at its distal end, which prevents ____ backflow as the bladder _____ and ______.
2. When the bladder is empty, the ______ are spaced approximately __ cm apart. When bladder expands, they move approximately to ____ cm apart.
3. The bladder can hold _____ to ____ ML. At ____ ML, the bladder is distended enough that the conscious sensation of needing to urinate arises.
4. On demand, the ______ cortex of the brain sends impules to the external urethal _______ muscle to relax and ______ takes place.
5. Tissue expansion puts pressure on ____-____ receptors located in the muscle wall, which causes internal _____ _____ to relax and desire to ____ or Urinate.
- 1. Valve / Urine / Contracts and Empties
- 2. Ureters / 2 / 5
- 3. 700 to 800 / 300
- 4. Cerebral / Orifice / Urination
- 5. pressure-sensitive / Urethral Orifice / Void
Located in the pelvis behind the public symphasis, provides a temporary storage reservoir for urine. In women, it sits on the anterior vagina and in front of the uterus.
In men, it rests on the prostate.
What is the Bladder?
Small, tubular structure that transports urine from the urinary bladder out of the body during micturition (Urination)
What is the Urethra?
Hormone released by the pituitary gland that regulates the control of water balance of the body. If the bloodstream becomes concentrated as result of water loss through sweat or urination, the hormone is released
What is Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)?
Hormone produced in the adrenal cortex, works in concert with ADH to maintain homeostasis of bodily fluids.
What is Alderstone?
Hormone produced by specialized cells located in the atrial walls of the heart. This hormone decreases sodium by triggering urine production, or Diureses, which decreases blood volume and blood pressure.
What is Atrial Natriuretic hormone (ANH)?
Substance promoting the formation and excretion of Urine, can increase urine production by increasing the amount blood fluid crossing the glomerulus, or it can decrease the amount of water reabsorbed from the renal tubule.
What is a Diuretic?
Concentrated filtrate from the kidneys that is 96% water and 4% dissolved wastes. Tends to be slightly acidic and has a normal amber color. The more concentrated, the darker color it will be.
What is Urine?
The mechanism for voiding urine, begins with a voluntary relaxation of the external sphincter muscle of the bladder. Parasympathetic fibers transmit the impulses that cause contractions of the bladder and relaxation of the internal sphincter.
What is Micturition?
1. The average adult produces 1 to 2 ______ of urine per day. ____, _____ and even physical factors can affect the amount urine produced.and _____ by the body.
2. Example of a chemical factor is consumption of _____, ____ and many carbonated beverages, which have a diuretic effect.
3. In women, the length of the urethra is short, approximately ____ inches. The men's length is ____ inches, depending on penile length.
4. The urinary bladder, to allow expansion, is line with mucous transitional epithelum that forms folds called ______.
5. In the uretha, the _____ sphincter closes the proxomal end, the _____ sphincter are located in the wall of the urogential diaphragm. Contains ______ muscle.
- 1. Quarts / Chemical / Nervous / Excreted
- 2. Coffee, Tea
- 3. 1.5 / 8
- 4. Rugae
- 5. Internal / External / Visceral
Describe the Urinary System Fluid Pathway: Afferent Arterioloes of Kidneys to the Outside of the Body.
- 1. Arising from the Renal Arteries, Blood travels via Afferent Arterioles into Glomerulus
- 2. Filtration occurs; fluid moves from Glomerulus across the membran to Bowman's Capsule
- 3. Filtrate moves through the Renal Tubule (PCT, Loop of Henle, DCT)
- 4. Reabsorption occurs primarily in the PCT, Tubular Secretion occurs primarily in (DCT) & Collecting Ducts
- 5. Collecting Ducts merge passing through the Medulla into Renal Pappilla of Medullary Pyramids
- 6. Urine passes into Minor Caycles that merge to form Major Caycles which drain into Renal Pelvis
- 7. Urine passes into Ureteres to the Urinary Bladder to be stored.
- 8. Urine finally passes out of the body by way of the Urethra during Void (Urination)
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