Nutrition 300 Ch 4

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  1. What is the basic definition of carbohydrates?
    compunds compsoed of single or multiple sugars. The name means "carbon and water," and a chemical shorthand for carbohdrates is CHO, signifying carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O)
  2. What are complex carbohydrates?
    long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber, also called polysaccharides. (starch and fiber)
  3. What are simple carbohydrates?
    Sugars including both single sugar units and linked pairs of sugar units. THe basic sugar unit is a milecule containing six carbon atoms, together with oxygen and hydrogen. All derived from plants except milk
  4. What is photosynthesis?
    the process by which green plants make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water using the green pigment chlorophyll to capture the sun's energy (photo means "light:; synthesis mean making)
  5. What is chlorophyll?
    the green pigment of plants that captures energy from sunlight for use in photosynthesis.
  6. What are sugars?
    simple carbohydrates; that is molecules of either single sugar units or pairs of those sugar units bonded together. By common usuage, sugar most often refers to sucrose
  7. What is glucose
    a single sugar used in both plant and animal tissue for energy; sometimes known as blood sugar or dextrose.
  8. What is monosaccharides?
    single sugar units includes fructose: fruits; glucose (found in a lot); galactose: found in milk and dairy
  9. What is disccharides?
    pairs of singe sugars linked together? Matose: glucose + glucose; sucrose: glucose + fructose; lactose: glucose + galactose
  10. What is fructose?
    a monosacharide; part of the disccharide lactose (milk lactos)
  11. What is galactose?
    a monosacharide; part of the disccaridide lactose (milk sugar).
  12. What is lactose?
    a disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose; sometimes known as mile sugar
  13. What is maltose?
    a disaccharide composed of two glucose units; sometimes know as malt sugar.
  14. What is sucrose?
    a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose; sometimes known as table, beet, or cane sugar and often as simply sugar.
  15. What is polusaccharides?
    Another term for complex carbohydrates; compounds of long strands of glucose units linked togerher Also means complex carbohydrates: Fibers, starches, glycogen
  16. What is a starch?
    a plant polysaccharides composed of glucose. After cooking, starch is highly digestable by humans; raw starch often resists digestion.
  17. What are graanules?
    Smal grains. Starch granules are packages of starch molecules. Various plant species make starch granules of varying shapes.
  18. What is glycogen?
    a highly branched polysaccharide that is made and stored by liver and muscle tissues of human beings and animals as a storage form of glucose. Glycogen is not a significant food source of carbohydrate and is not counted as one of the complex carbohydrates in foods.
  19. What is fiber?
    the indigestible parts of plant foods, largely nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymnes, although some are digestive by resident bacteria of the colon. Fibers include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, mucilages, and the nonpolysaccharide lignin. Souluabe (apple skin) and insoluable (apple inside)
  20. What are soluble fibers?
    food components that readily dissolve in water wand often impart gummy or gel-like charcteristics to foods. An example is pectin from fruit, which is used to thickens jellies. Soluble fibers are indigestable by human enzymes but may be broken down to absorable products by bacteria in the digestive tract.
  21. What is viscous?
    have a sticky, gummy, or gel-like consistancy that flows realitively slowly.
  22. What are insoluble fibers?
    the tough, fiberous structions of fruits, vegetables, and grains; indigestable food components that do not disolve in water.
  23. What is constipation?
    difficult, incomplete, or infrequent bowel movements associated with discomfort in passing dry, hardened feces from the body
  24. What are hemorrhoids?
    Swollen, hardened varicose veins in the rectum, usually caused by the pressure resulting from constipation.
  25. What is diverticula?
    sacs or pounches that balloon out of the intestinal wall, caused by weakening of the muscle layers that encase the intestine. THe painful inflammation of one or more of the diverticula is know as diverticulitis.
  26. What is butyrate?
    a small fat fragment produced by the fermenting action of bacteria on viscous, soluble fibers; the preferred energy source for the colon cells.
  27. What is chelating agents?
    molecules that attract or bind with other molecules and are therefore usefule in either preventing or promoting movement of substances from place to place.
  28. What is resistant starch?
    the fraction of starch in a food that is digested slowly, or not at all, by humans enzymes.
  29. What is lactose intolerant?
    impaired ability to digest lactose due to reduced amounts of the enzyme lactase.
  30. What is lactase?
    the intestinal enzyme that splits the disaccharide lactose to monosaccharides during digestion.
  31. What is protein-sparing action?
    the action of carbohydrate and fat in providing energy that allows protein to be used for purposes it alone can serve.
  32. What are keton bodies?
    acidics, fat-related compounds that can arise from the incomplege breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available.
  33. What is ketosis?
    an undersirable high concentration of ketone bodies, such as acetone, in the blood or urine.
  34. What is insulin?
    a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to a high blood glucose concentration. It assists cells in drawing glucose from the blood.
  35. Whats is glucagon?
    a hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood when blood glucose concentration dips.
  36. What is the glycemic Index (GI)?
    a ranking of foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose relative to a standard such a glucose or white bread.
  37. What is the glycemic load?
    a mathmatical expressions of both the glycemic index and the carbs content of a food, meal or diet (glycemic index x carbs)
  38. What is diabetes?
    a disease characterized by elevated blood glucose and inadequate or ineffective insulin, which impairs a person's ability to regulate blood glucose normally. The technical name is diabetes mellitus
  39. What is prediabetes?
    condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes; considered a major risk factor for future diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
  40. What is dialysis?
    in kidney disease, treatment of the blood to remove toxic substances or metabolic waste; more properly
  41. What is insulin resistance?
    a condition in which a normal or high level of circulating insulin produces a less than normal response in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissues; thought to be a metabolic consequence of obesity.
  42. What is type 1 diabetes?
    they type of diabetes in which the pancreas produces no or very little insulin; often diagnosed in childhood, although some cases arise in adulthood. Formally called juvenille-onset or insulin-dependant diabetes.
  43. What is autoimmune disorder?
    a disease in which the body develops antibodies to its own proteins and then proceeds to destroy cells containing these proteins. Example are type 1 diabetes and lupus
  44. What is type 2 diabetes?
    the type of diabetes in which the pancreas makes plenty of insulin but the body's cells resist insulin's action; often diagnosed in adulthood. Formally called adult-onset or noninsulin-dependant diabetes
  45. What is hypoglycemia?
    a blood glucose concentration below normal, a sumptons that may indicate any of several diseases, including impending diabetes.
  46. What are sugar alcohols?
    sugarlike compounds in the chemical family alcohol derived from fruits or the sugar dextrose that are absorbed more slowly than other sugars, are metabolized differently, and do not elevate the risk of dental caries. Examples are maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, isomalt, and lactitol.
  47. What is dental caries?
    decay of the teeth
  48. What are artificial sweeteners?
    They are sugar substitutes that provide negligible, if an, energy; also called nonnutritive sweeteners.
  49. What is postorandial hypoglycemia?
    an unusual drop in blood glucose that follows a meal and is accompanied by symptoms such as anxiety, rapid heartbeat, and sweating, also called reactive hypoglycemia.
  50. What is fasting hypoglycemia?
    hypoglycemia that occurs after 8-14 hours of fasting.
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Nutrition 300 Ch 4
Nutrition 300 Ch 4
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