Thorax

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
101677
Filename:
Thorax
Updated:
2011-09-14 14:50:23
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buspm
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Description:
pgs 10-38
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  1. layers of skin
    • epidermis
    • dermis
  2. fibers in skin
    • elastic
    • collagen
    • reticular
  3. types of skin
    • thick: palm and sole
    • thin: eyelids, abdomen
  4. appendages of skin
    • hair
    • nails
    • sweat glands
    • sebaceous glands
    • ceruminous glands
    • mammary glands
  5. functions of skin
    • protection
    • reception
    • excretion/absorption
    • regulation of body temp
  6. protection of skin
    • secretion
    • hair
    • pigment
    • thickening
  7. reception of skin
    • tactile
    • pain
    • pressure
    • thermal
  8. regulation of body temp
    • evaporation of sweat
    • cooling of blood
  9. Skin surface
    • flexure lines
    • tension lines
    • friction lines
    • age changes
    • dermatomes
  10. flexure lines
    • over joints
    • skin moves freely over superficial fascia
    • may be wrinkled or folded (not palm or soles)
  11. tension lines
    • AKA langer's lines
    • skin not smooth
    • geometric pattern of creases
    • follow bundle of collagen
  12. friction lines
    • AKA ridges
    • palm and sole
    • alternate ridge and groove
    • give finger and footprints
  13. dimple
    periosteum attached to skin
  14. age changes
    • translucence or thinning
    • wrinkles caused by loss of fat
    • loss of hair
    • appearance of liver spots on face and hands
  15. dermatomes
    nerve supply: area of skin supplied by sensory fiber ot a dorsal root from dorsal and ventral rami of the spinal nerves

    adjacent dermatomes overlap: Cn1-8 Tn1-12 Ln1-5 Sn1-5 Con-1

    need 3 contiguous spinal nerves to be anesthesized during surgical procedures

    help detect neurological lesions
  16. special dermatomes
    • T4 nipple
    • T10 navel
    • T12 above pubic bone
    • L4 hallux (big toe)
    • C7 middle finger
    • C8 little finger
  17. fascia
    mix of fat and c.t.
  18. types of fascia
    • superficial: more fat than fiber
    • deep: more fiber than fat
  19. characteristics of deep fascia
    • pattern: regular or irregular (random)
    • surrounds muscle
  20. breast- mammary gland
    breast and axillary tail make up mammary gland
  21. location of breast
    • between sternum and mix-axillary line
    • between ribs 2-6
  22. location of nipple
    • intercostal space 4
    • on top of pectoralis major and minor
  23. characteristics of breast
    • modified sweat gland
    • made of fat and glands
    • can be divided into 4 quadrants
  24. non lactating vs. lactating
    • non lactating: more fat than gland
    • lactating: more gland than fat
  25. breast cancer
    60% can be found in superolateral quadrant
  26. parts of the saggital section of breast
    fat, gland, lactiferous duct and sinus, ligament of cooper, areola
  27. blood supply of breast
    • pectoral branch of thoracoacromial artery
    • lateral thoracic artery
    • posterior intercostal arteries
    • anterior perforating branches of internal thoracic (mammary artery)
  28. lympathic drainage of breast
    • axillary nodes: 75% of drainage. 1=apical 2=central 3=anterior 4=lateral 5=posterior
    • transpectoral
    • parasternal (internal thoracic artery)
    • opposite breast
    • ligamentum teres (to liver)
  29. lympathic drainage and breast cancer
    spreads to lungs, mediastinum, and liver
  30. clinical solutions to breast cancer
    • 1) Radical mastectomy: remove breast, axillary lymph nodes, major and minor pectoralis parts, medial and lateral nerves, medial, lateral, and minor arteries, opposite breast
    • 2) lumpectomy
    • 3) mammogram
  31. parts of thorax cage
    • sternum
    • thoracic inlet
    • structures in thoracic inlet
  32. sternum
    • manubrium sterni
    • body
    • xyphoid process
  33. thoracic inlet
    • 1st rib
    • manubrium sterni
    • 1st thoracic vertebra
  34. structures in inlet
    • trachea
    • espohagus
    • vagus and phrenic nerves
    • apex of lung
  35. thoracic outlet structures
    • T12
    • Rib 12
    • costal margin
  36. landmarks of sternum
    • xiphoid process at level of Tv10 or Tv11
    • manubrio-sternal joint, sternal angle (angle of louis) at lower border ot Tv4: costal cartilage of rib 2 articulates directly in this joint
  37. Ribs
    • 12 pairs = 24 total
    • rib 7=longest
    • rib 12= shortest
    • rib 1= sometimes called shortest
  38. features of ribs
    • features
    • a: typical ribs=3-9 have head, neck, and shaft, have costal groove that shelters intercostal nerve, artery, and vein
    • b: atypical ribs = 1,2,10-12 are unique from each other and all other ribs
  39. true and false ribs
    • true: 1-7 articulate directly through their costal cartilage with sternum
    • false: 8-10 articulate with adjacent costal cartilage
    • false floating ribs: 11 and 12 no adjacent cartilage, end at muscle of body wall
  40. rib 1
    • short and broad
    • boundary for thoracic inlet
    • groove for subclavian artery and vein
  41. fxns of thoracic cage
    • protect internal organs
    • attachment of muscles
    • assist in breathing
  42. muscles of thoracic wall
    serratus anterior: forms medial wall of axilla, origin from ribs 1-8, inserts in costal surface of scapula such as superior angle, inferior angle, and medial border.
  43. nerve of thorax
    Long thoracic nerve found inside the axilla
  44. fxn of nerve
    rotate scapula, abductor of arm, and elevation above the horizontal plane and respiration
  45. what happens when nerve is cut
    • scapula can't be held down so scapula appears as a wing
    • loss of elevation of the arm
    • problems with respiration

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