NCLEX Review Part 1
Card Set Information
NCLEX Review Part 1
NCLEX lab values
NCLEX Review Part 1
Bacon, butter, canned food, American/cottage cheese, Frankfurters, ketchup, lunch meat, milk, mustard, processed/snack food, soy sauce, table salt, white/whole wheat bread
Avocado, bananas, cantaloupe, carrots, fish, mushrooms, oranges, potatoes, pork, beef, veal, raisins, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes
Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)
(description, what does it monitor?)
- Determines how well the coagulation sequence is functioning by measuing the amount of time it takes in seconds for recalcified citrated plasma to clot after partial thromboplastin is added.
- Monitors heparin therapy and screens for coagulation disorders.
(value, nursing considerations)
- 20-36 seconds
- If patient is receiving heparin therapy draw sample 1 hr before dose is to be given.
- aPTT should be 1.5-2.5x normal when patient is receiving heparin therapy.
Prothombin time (PT)
- Vitamin K dependent - green leafy vegetables.
- Meaures the amount of time it takes in seconds for clot formation.
Male - 9.6-11.8 seconds
Female 9.5-11.3 seconds
International Normalized Ration (INR)
- INR measures the effect of oral anticoagulants.
2.0-3.0 standard warfarin therapy
3.0-4.5 high-dose warfarin therapy
- Time required for the interaction of all factors involved in the clotting proecess.
- 8-15 minutes
(produced where?, what alters it?)
- Bone marrow
- High altitudes, chronic cold weather, exercise increase platelet count
(description, value, Increased ___, Decreased ___)
- Main plasma portein found in blood.
- 3.4-5 g/dL
- Increased value = dehydration, diarrhea, metastatic carcinoma
- Enzyme normally found in bone, liver, intestine, and placenta.
- 4.5-13 King-Armstrong units/dL
- Fast 12 hrs before test.
- Hepatotoxic medications within 12 hrs = false high
- Byproduct of protein catabolism; most of it is created by bacteria acting on proteins present in the gut.
- 35-65 mg/dL
- Fast and no smoking 8-10 hrs before test
- Place specimen on ice
- Hepatic dysfunction > encephalopathy
- Aids in digestion of complex carbs and is excreted by kidneys.
- 25-151 units/L
- Pancreatic enzyme that converts fats and triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol.
- 10-140 units/L
- Produced by the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
Cholesterol 140-199 mg/dL
LDL <130 mg/dL
HDL 30-70 mg/dL
Triglycerides <200 mg/dL
(description, value, Increase ___, Decrease ___)
- Reflects total amount of albumin and globulins in plasma.
- 6-8 g/dL
- Increase = Addison's autoimmune collagen disorders, chronic infection, crohn's
- Decrease = burns, cirrhosis, edema
Male - 4.5-8 mg/dL
Female - 2.5-6.2 mg/dL
8-12 hrs fast, 70-110 mg/dL
- Specific indicator of renal function.
- 0.6-1.3 mg/dL
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Urea is normally filtered through the renal glomeruli; increased levels = slowed GFR.
- 8-25 mg/dL
- Bone formation, nerve impulse transmission, and contraction of myocardial and skeletal muscles
- 8.6-10 mg/dL
Cheese, collard greens, milk, rhubarb, sardines, spinach, tofu, yogurt.
- Blood-clotting mechanism, regulates neuromuscular activity.
- 1.6-2.6 mg/dL
Avocado, white canned tuna, cauliflower, green leafy vegetables, milk, oatmeal, peanut butter, peas, chicken, potatoes, raisins, yogurt.
Bone formation, energy storage and release, urinary acid-base buffering..
- 2.7 - 4.5 mg/dL
Fish, organ meats, nuts, beef, pork, chicken, whole grain breads/cereals
TSH, T4, T3
TSH - 0.2-5.4 microunits/mL
T4 - 5-12 mcg/dL
T3 - 80-230 mg/dL
4.5-11 thousand cells/mm
pH of urine
Rate at which erythrocytes settle out of anticoagulated blood in 1 hour
- 0-30 mm/hr
- Main component of erythrocytes and is the vehicle for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide.
- Male - 14-18 gm/dL
- Female 12-16 gm/dL
- Proportion by volume of the blood that consists of RBCs.
- Male - 42-54%
- Female - 38-46%
- Carriers of oxygen.
- Diagnoses anemia, hemolytic disorders.
- Male - 60-125 mcg/dL
- Female - 50-120 mcg/dL
Male - 4.5-6.2 million cells/microliter
Female - 4-5.5 million cells/microliter
Creatine Kinase (CK)
(description, beginning of rise, peak, return to normal)
- Enzyme found in muscle and brain tissue that reflects tissue catabolism resulting from cell trauma.
- Damage occurs, beginning of rise at 6 hrs, peak at 18 hrs, return to normal 2-3 days later.
(value and types)
CK-MB - cardiac 0-5% of total
CK-BB - brain 0% of total
CK-MM - skeletal muscle 95-100% of total
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
When LDH1 > LDH2 = acute MI
LDH 1 = 18-33%
LDH 2 = 28-40%
- Damage occurs, beginning of rise at 24 hrs, peak at 48-72 hrs, return to normal 7-14 days later.
- Regulatory protein found in striated muscle (skeletal and myocardial)
- Rise in 3 hrs after MI
- Troponin 1 <0.6 ng/mL
- Troponin T >0.1-0.2 ng/mL
- Oxygen binding protein found in striated (cardiac and skeletal) muscle that releases oxyen at very low tensions.
Daily Body Fluid Excretion - skin (diffusion, perspiration), lungs, feces, kidneys
400 mL, 100, 350, 150, 1500