NCLEX Review Part 1

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101722
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NCLEX Review Part 1
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2011-09-14 16:56:04
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NCLEX lab values
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NCLEX Review Part 1
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  1. Sodium
    135-145 mEq/L
  2. Sodium
    (foods)
    Bacon, butter, canned food, American/cottage cheese, Frankfurters, ketchup, lunch meat, milk, mustard, processed/snack food, soy sauce, table salt, white/whole wheat bread
  3. Potassium
    3.5-5.1 mEq/L
  4. Potassium
    (foods)
    Avocado, bananas, cantaloupe, carrots, fish, mushrooms, oranges, potatoes, pork, beef, veal, raisins, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes
  5. Bicarbonate (venous)
    22-29 mEq/L
  6. Chloride
    98-107 mEq/L
  7. Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)
    (description, what does it monitor?)
    - Determines how well the coagulation sequence is functioning by measuing the amount of time it takes in seconds for recalcified citrated plasma to clot after partial thromboplastin is added.

    - Monitors heparin therapy and screens for coagulation disorders.
  8. aPTT
    (value, nursing considerations)
    - 20-36 seconds

    • - If patient is receiving heparin therapy draw sample 1 hr before dose is to be given.
    • - aPTT should be 1.5-2.5x normal when patient is receiving heparin therapy.
  9. Prothombin time (PT)
    (description, value)
    • - Vitamin K dependent - green leafy vegetables.
    • - Meaures the amount of time it takes in seconds for clot formation.
    • Male - 9.6-11.8 seconds
    • Female 9.5-11.3 seconds
  10. International Normalized Ration (INR)
    (description, value)
    • - INR measures the effect of oral anticoagulants.
    • 2.0-3.0 standard warfarin therapy
    • 3.0-4.5 high-dose warfarin therapy
  11. Clotting time
    (description, value)
    • - Time required for the interaction of all factors involved in the clotting proecess.
    • - 8-15 minutes
  12. Platelet count
    150,000-400,000 cells/mm3
  13. Platelet count
    (produced where?, what alters it?)
    • - Bone marrow
    • - High altitudes, chronic cold weather, exercise increase platelet count
  14. Albumin
    (description, value, Increased ___, Decreased ___)
    • - Main plasma portein found in blood.
    • - 3.4-5 g/dL
    • - Increased value = dehydration, diarrhea, metastatic carcinoma
  15. Alkaline phosphatase
    (description, value)
    • - Enzyme normally found in bone, liver, intestine, and placenta.
    • - 4.5-13 King-Armstrong units/dL
  16. Alkaline phosphatase
    (nursing considerations)
    • - Fast 12 hrs before test.
    • - Hepatotoxic medications within 12 hrs = false high
  17. Ammonia
    (description, value)
    • - Byproduct of protein catabolism; most of it is created by bacteria acting on proteins present in the gut.
    • - 35-65 mg/dL
  18. Ammonia
    (nursing considerations)
    • - Fast and no smoking 8-10 hrs before test
    • - Place specimen on ice
    • - Hepatic dysfunction > encephalopathy
  19. Amylase
    (description, value)
    • - Aids in digestion of complex carbs and is excreted by kidneys.
    • - 25-151 units/L
  20. Lipase
    (description, value)
    • - Pancreatic enzyme that converts fats and triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol.
    • - 10-140 units/L
  21. Bilirubin
    (description, value)
    • - Produced by the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
    • <1.5 mg/dL
  22. Lipids
    (4 levels)
    • Cholesterol 140-199 mg/dL
    • LDL <130 mg/dL
    • HDL 30-70 mg/dL
    • Triglycerides <200 mg/dL
  23. Protein
    (description, value, Increase ___, Decrease ___)
    • - Reflects total amount of albumin and globulins in plasma.
    • - 6-8 g/dL
    • - Increase = Addison's autoimmune collagen disorders, chronic infection, crohn's
    • - Decrease = burns, cirrhosis, edema
  24. Uric Acid
    • Male - 4.5-8 mg/dL
    • Female - 2.5-6.2 mg/dL
  25. Fasting glucose
    8-12 hrs fast, 70-110 mg/dL
  26. Serum creatinine
    (description, value)
    • - Specific indicator of renal function.
    • - 0.6-1.3 mg/dL
  27. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
    • Urea is normally filtered through the renal glomeruli; increased levels = slowed GFR.
    • - 8-25 mg/dL
  28. Calcium
    (functions, value)
    • - Bone formation, nerve impulse transmission, and contraction of myocardial and skeletal muscles
    • - 8.6-10 mg/dL
  29. Calcium
    (foods)
    Cheese, collard greens, milk, rhubarb, sardines, spinach, tofu, yogurt.
  30. Magnesium
    (functions, value)
    • - Blood-clotting mechanism, regulates neuromuscular activity.
    • - 1.6-2.6 mg/dL
  31. Magnesium
    (foods)
    Avocado, white canned tuna, cauliflower, green leafy vegetables, milk, oatmeal, peanut butter, peas, chicken, potatoes, raisins, yogurt.
  32. Phosphorus
    (functions, value)
    • Bone formation, energy storage and release, urinary acid-base buffering..
    • - 2.7 - 4.5 mg/dL
  33. Phosphorus
    (foods)
    Fish, organ meats, nuts, beef, pork, chicken, whole grain breads/cereals
  34. TSH, T4, T3
    • TSH - 0.2-5.4 microunits/mL
    • T4 - 5-12 mcg/dL
    • T3 - 80-230 mg/dL
  35. WBC Count
    4.5-11 thousand cells/mm3
  36. CD4+ T-Cell
    500-1600 cells/L
  37. pH of urine
    4.5-7.8
  38. Erythrocyte rate
    (description, value)
    • Rate at which erythrocytes settle out of anticoagulated blood in 1 hour
    • - 0-30 mm/hr
  39. Hemoglobin
    (description, value)
    • - Main component of erythrocytes and is the vehicle for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide.
    • - Male - 14-18 gm/dL
    • - Female 12-16 gm/dL
  40. Hematocrit (Hct)
    (description, value)
    • - Proportion by volume of the blood that consists of RBCs.
    • - Male - 42-54%
    • - Female - 38-46%
  41. Serum iron
    (description, value)
    • - Carriers of oxygen.
    • - Diagnoses anemia, hemolytic disorders.
    • - Male - 60-125 mcg/dL
    • - Female - 50-120 mcg/dL
  42. RBC
    • Male - 4.5-6.2 million cells/microliter
    • Female - 4-5.5 million cells/microliter
  43. Creatine Kinase (CK)
    (description, beginning of rise, peak, return to normal)
    • - Enzyme found in muscle and brain tissue that reflects tissue catabolism resulting from cell trauma.
    • - Damage occurs, beginning of rise at 6 hrs, peak at 18 hrs, return to normal 2-3 days later.
  44. CK
    (value and types)
    • 26-174 units/L
    • CK-MB - cardiac 0-5% of total
    • CK-BB - brain 0% of total
    • CK-MM - skeletal muscle 95-100% of total
  45. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
    • When LDH1 > LDH2 = acute MI
    • LDH 1 = 18-33%
    • LDH 2 = 28-40%
    • - Damage occurs, beginning of rise at 24 hrs, peak at 48-72 hrs, return to normal 7-14 days later.
  46. Troponin
    (description, values)
    • - Regulatory protein found in striated muscle (skeletal and myocardial)
    • - Rise in 3 hrs after MI
    • - Troponin 1 <0.6 ng/mL
    • - Troponin T >0.1-0.2 ng/mL
  47. Myoglobin
    (description, value)
    • - Oxygen binding protein found in striated (cardiac and skeletal) muscle that releases oxyen at very low tensions.
    • <90 mcg/L
  48. Daily Body Fluid Excretion - skin (diffusion, perspiration), lungs, feces, kidneys
    400 mL, 100, 350, 150, 1500

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