Patho Unit 1

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  1. atrophy
    • decrease in cell size
    • require less oxygen
    • related to workload
  2. muscle atrophy
    • mass maintained by insulin-like growth factor-1
    • reduced synthetic processes
    • increased proteolysis by ubiquitin-proteasome system
    • apoptosis
  3. causes of atrophy
    • disuse
    • denervation
    • loss of endocrine stimulation
    • inadequate nutrition
    • ischemia
  4. hypertrophy
    • increase in cell size from increased workload
    • physiologic- exercise
    • pathologic-disease (adaptive or compensatory)
  5. initiating signals of hypertrophy
    • ATP depletion
    • mechanical-stretching of muscle fibers
    • activation of cell degradation products
    • hormones
  6. hyperplasia
    • increase in # of cells in cells capable of mitosis
    • activation in genes controlling cell proliferation
  7. physiologic hyperplasia
    • hormone-breast & uterine elargement
    • compensatory- regeneration of liver
    • connective tissue- wound healing with proliferating fibroblasts & blood vessels
  8. nonphysiologic hyperplasia
    excessive growth hormone stimulation- endometrial hyperplasia, benign prostatic hyperplasia
  9. metaplasia
    • reversible where one adult cell type is replaced by another
    • response to chronic irritation
    • conversion cell type never oversteps boundries of primary type
    • change of ciliated columnar cells to stratified epithelium in trachea of smokers
  10. dysplasia
    • deranged cell growth of specific tissue
    • precursor of cancer
  11. intracellular accumulations
    • build-up of substances that cells cannot immedeiately use or eliminate
    • cell produced
    • exogenous materials
  12. intracellular accumulation substances
    • normal body substances: lipids, proteins, carbohydates, melanin, bili
    • abnormal endogenous : inborn error of metabolism
    • exogenous: environmental, & pigments (tatoo, icterus)
  13. dystrophic calcification
    • deposit of calcium salts in injured tissue
    • derived from bodies of dead cells
  14. metastatic calcification
    • occurs in normal tissues
    • results of increased serum calcification
    • hyperparathyroidism, mobilization of calcium from bone, bone cancer, vit D intoxication
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Patho Unit 1
2011-09-14 21:19:25

cellular response to stress, injury, and aging
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