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What is the nonutilitarian feature of media?
The fact the media do not fulfill essential human needs.
What is a key question in the study of media industries?
How and Why texts are created in the first place.
What are three reasons we should understand media industries?
- 1. increasingly important sectors of American and world economies
- 2. they contrib to political discussions and even set ground rules for political debate
- 3. add to our everyday lives in ways that are obvious and subtle
What is the title of the framework we use for explaining the operation of media industries?
Industrialization of Culture Framework (IOF)
How many levels does the IOC contain?
- a. mandate
- b. conditions
- c. practices
What is a mandate?
The primary goal of the organization. Most mandates in America are commercial.
What are examples of noncommercial mandates?
- 1. NPR BBC: inform the public using tax money
- 2. Community Mandates, Local
- 3. DIY for special interest in an underrepresented part of media, primary vehicles of self expression
- 4. Government Mandates; mostly in totalitarian regimes.
What are six aspects in IOC of how media industries shape texts?
- 1. Trends, Tastes, Traditions
- 2. Mandate
- 3. Conditions
- 4. Practices
- 5. Texts
- 6. Public
The term culture can be used in what two ways?
- 1. aesthetic sense: referring to texts that media industries produce.
- 2. anthropological sense: explains why some nations favor public or commerical mandates and put restraints on broadcasts. Used to study why ppl who work in media industries have shaped their views, texts they produce, and audience they engage.
Commercial media systems tend to not be demographic which means...?
some audiences are more valued than others. Typically those who are younger and/or have higher incomes.
What mandates are primary vehicles of self expression?
Do it yourself mandate, produced as an alternative mandate to fill void in existing media.
What are conditions?
They are larger than any individual entity and organize how media industries can operate.
What are three aspects of conditions?
- 1. Technology (ex. music piracy)
- 2. Regulation (ex. on business structure, content)
- 3. Economic (ex. conglomerations)
What is important to understand when thinking about conditions in IOC?
They rarely operate independently.
What factors contribute to the current transition of each of these conditions?
- 1. globalization
- 2. technological digitization
- 3. shift from industrial to symbolic economy
What are practices?
an umbrella term that can include a broad range of workers and activists. Turow classified at least 13 diff power roles.
What are three distinct types of practices to help categorize roles?
- 1. creative practices: make text
- 2. distribution and exhibition: bring text to audience
- 3. auxiliary practices: numerous practices that exist outside media industries but remain crucial to their functioning (advertising, Nielsen, promotion).
What position does Lotz strongly disagree with in regards to noninformational media?
The belief that noninformational media are only entertainment and thus unlikely to lay a significant role in shaping attitudes about political and social issues.
What is the public sphere?
The unique space for public debate that the mass media can provide in modern societies.
Media workers constantly strive for some degree of autonomy with regard to editorial and creative decisions.
What is circumscribed agency?
choices we make are not wholly our own due to influence from modern institutions and cultural traditions
What is one of the main restriction to aesthetic and ideological creativity?
- 1. Genre.
- 2. a wide range of conventions. They carry the illusion of quality, professionalism.
What is the Society of Professional Journalism for and how does it play into circumscribed agency?
It's a published code of ethics that influences what stories journalists report and how they report them. The professional organization can circumscribe agency of media workers.
What are three main principles that theorize how much agency media workers have?
- 1. circumscribed agency
- 2. ideological uncertainity: regardless of how much media try to control message, it is impossible to predict to impact of media texts on society
- 3. relative isolation of media producers: only the certain issues that find their way back to them have affect of production, usually too late though
What are adaptive strategies?
conventional practices that help to make commercial media production more predictable.
Caves identifies in issue called "nobody knows", what does it mean?
describes how it's more difficult to predict what products will succeed in media than it is in other industries.
What are sunk costs?
A unique aspect of commercial media use nearly all money on media production (first-copy cuts) and little on distribution (reproduction costs).
What is a public good?
economists consider media texts as public/semi-public goods because they are not destroyed or used up.
What is the A list/Blist issue?
It's difficult to predict whether it's beneficial to invest in an A list actor when a B list could do just as good for less money.
What is ars longa?
The long economic life of media industry products. ex. I love Lucy
What is intentional overproduction?
A media response to risk where they overproduce merchandise in order to compensate
What is artificial scarcity?
A media resposne to risk where they create scarcity of a product or adjust distribution windows to expand the life of a good. Ex. disney vault, the window between DVD and movie theater,
What are formats or formatting?
A media response to risk where they rely on genres and conventions.
Explain economies of scale in media industries.
has to do with national scale productions. they are achieved when the average cost of a commodity decreases with expansion of output. ex. instead of capping a class at 30, the university does at 130. You see the advantages of the university. downside is losing local flavor in media.
What is synergy?
In conglomerating carious media operations, the combined value is greater than the sum of the individual parts due to the potential of cross-promotion enabled by owning multiple media.
Do media sell conventional goods?
No, they sell cultural expressions and ideas.
What are 4 barriers to prevent producers from
controlling the message they want to broadcast?
- 1. political volatility of that content (if ppl
- don't think it relates to them, they look elsewhere)
- 2. unpredictability of audience interpretation
- 3. the collective nature of production
- 4. the ambiguities of contemporary ideology make it impossible to
- determine the political impact of media texts on a society.
What are 6 adaptive strategies of media industries?
- 1. intentional overproduction
- 2. artifical scarcity-distribution windowing
- 3. formatting
- 4. use of economic scale
- 5. conglomeration and concentration
- 6. vertical integration, horizontal integration, and synergy
What does most media behavior stem from?
Efforts to reduce risk.
What are three aspects of agency that individuals are circumscribed by?
- 1. culture they live in
- 2. conventions of media they work in
- 3. priorities of their organizations and superiors
- 4. specific positions they hold in society