Chapter 1 AP

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  1. Anatomy
    The scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure.
  2. Cytology
    Examines the structural features of cells
  3. Histology
    Examines tissues, which are composed of cells and the materials surrounding them.
  4. Physiology
    The scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things.
  5. Developmental anatomy
    Studies the structural changes that occur between conception and adulthood.
  6. Embryology
    A subspecialty of developmental anatomy considers changes from conception to the end of the eighth week of development.
  7. Gross anatomy
    The study if structures that can be examined without the aid of a microscope, can be approached from either a systemic or a regional perspective.
  8. Surface anatomy
    The study of the external form of the body and its relation to deeper structures.
  9. Anatomical imaging
    Uses radiographs (x-rays), ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other technologies to create pictures if internal structures.
  10. Anatomical anomalies
    Physical characteristics that differ from the normal pattern.
  11. Cell physiology
    Examines the processes occurring in cells.
  12. Systemic physiology
    considers the functions of organ systems
  13. neurophysiology
    focuses on the nervous system
  14. cardiovascular physiology
    deals with the heart and blood vessels
  15. pathology
    The medical science dealing with all aspects of disease with an emphasis on the casus and development of abnormal conditions.
  16. exercise physiology
    Focuses on the changes in function and structure caused by exercise.
  17. Six levels of organization
    • Chemical
    • cell
    • tissue
    • organ
    • organ system
    • whole organism
  18. chemical level
    Atoms combine to form molecules
  19. Cell level
    Molecules form organelles such as the nucleus and mitochondria, which make up cells.
  20. Tissue level
    Similar cells and surrounding materials make up tissues
  21. Organ level
    Different tissues combine to form organs, such as the urinary bladder.
  22. Organ system level
    Organs such as the urinary bladder and kidneys make up an organ system
  23. Organism level
    Organ systems make up an organism
  24. Cells
    Basic structural and functional units of plants and animals
  25. Organelles
    Small structures that make up cells
  26. Tissue
    Composed of a group of similar cells and surrounding them
  27. Organ
    Composed of two or more tissue types that perform one or more common functions
  28. Organ system
    Group of organs that together perform a common function or set of function and are therefore viewed as a unit
  29. Organism
    Any living thing considered as a whole, whether composed of one cell such as a bacterium, or of trillions of cells such as a human
  30. Organization
    Specific interrelationships among the parts of an organism and how those parts interact to perform specific functions
  31. Metabolism
    Refers to all of the chemical reactions chemical reactions taking place n an organism
  32. Responsiveness
    Organism's ability to sense changes in its external or internal environment and adjust to those changes
  33. Growth
    An increase in the size or number of cells, which produces an overall enlargement of all or part of an organism
  34. Development
    The changes an organism undergoes through time
  35. Differentiation
    change in cell structure and function from generalized to specialized
  36. morphogenesis
    change in the shape of tissues, organs, and the entire organism
  37. reproduction
    The formation of new cells or new organisms
  38. Integumentary system
    Provides protection, regulates temperature, prevents water loss, and helps produce vitamin D. Consists of skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands.
  39. Skeletal system
    Provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat. Consists of bones associated cartilages, ligaments, and joints.
  40. Muscular System
    Produces body movements, maintains posture and produces body heat. Consists of muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons.
  41. Lymphatic System
    Removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease maintains tissue fluid balances and absorbs fats from the digestive tract. Consists of the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs.
  42. Respiratory system
    Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air and regulates blood pH. Consists of the lungs and respiratory passages.
  43. Digestive System
    Performs the mechanical and chemical processes digestion, absorption of nutrients and elimination of wastes. Consists if the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs.
  44. Nervous System
    A major regulatory system that detects sensations and controls movements, physiological processess, and intellectual functions. Consists of the brain spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.
  45. Endocrine System
    A major system that influences metabolism growth, reproduction, and many other functions. consists of glands such as the pituitary, that secrete hormones.
  46. Cardiovascular System
    Transport nutrients, waste products, gases and hormones throughout the body, plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temperature. Consists heart, blood vessels, and blood.
  47. Uninary System
    Removes waste products from the blood and regulates blood pH, ion balance and water balance. Consists of the kidneys urinary, bladder, and ducts that carry urine.
  48. Female Reproductive System
    Produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and detal development; produces milk for the new born produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors. Consists of ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands.
  49. Male Reproductive System
    Produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors. Consist of testes, accessory structures, ducts, penis.
  50. Homeostasis
    The existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.
  51. Negative feedback
    Any deviation from the set point is made smaller or is resisted.
  52. Receptor
    Monitors the value of a variable
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Chapter 1 AP
2011-09-14 23:18:09

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