histology, lymphatic system

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histology, lymphatic system
2011-09-14 22:12:42
histology lymphatic system

MS1/Mod 2: histology; lymphatic system
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  1. Hashimoto's thryroiditis
    autoimmune disease
  2. lupus erythematosis
    autoimmune disease
  3. scleroderma
    autoimmune disease
  4. sentinel celss
    aka solid tissues
  5. cellular immunity
    immunocompetent celss react and destroy microorganisms, foreign cells (transplanted and tumor), and virus infected cells
  6. humoral immunity
    immune response using circulating Ab (Ig and glycoprot)
  7. B lymphocytes
    aka "bursa"
  8. parenchymal tissue
    functional tissue
  9. stromal tissue
    aka supportive tissue; FDC, mesenchyme, CT, fibroblasts, reticular cells
  10. What do reticular fibers provide?
    connective tissue framework
  11. lymphoid cells
    reticular cells, T and B lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages
  12. Langerhans cell
    dendritic cell in skin
  13. Why are macrophages junky?
    bc of primary, secondary, and tertiary lysosomes eating stuff
  14. components of non-encapsulated lymphatic tissue
    • lamina propria
    • solitary lymph NODULE
    • aggregates of lymph nodules (aka Peyer's patches)
  15. solitary lymph nodule
    dense aggregates of lymphatic tissue forming a spherical mass

    contains-reticular cells, reticular fibers, lymphocytes (T or B)
  16. Where are lymph nodules usually found?
    (not permanent structures); w/in LCT assoc w/ epithelium...aka cont w/ outside world (lamina propria of GI, urinary, respiratory); size and number increases during humoral responses and decrease when humoral response ends
  17. Nodule structure
    • mantle
    • germinal center
  18. mantle
    aka marginal zone or corona; outer, dense region of nodule containing small T and B lymphocytes
  19. germinal center
    aka reactive center; lighter region in center of nodule w/ B cells undergoing prolif and differentiation; has light zone and dark zone
  20. light zone of germinal center
    (in nodule) contains FDCs and centrocytes, mitotic figures (aka mult -cytes), apoptotic cells (cleaned up by macrophages)
  21. dark zone of germinal center
    (in nodule) contains DCs and centroblasts
  22. FDC/DC structure
    has long, motile processes to give more SA and increase efficiency of Ag presentation
  23. Where are FDCs derived from?
    stem cells w/in mesenchyme or LCT
  24. B cell appearance
    cleaved/folded nuc
  25. Where are aggregates of nodules usually found?
    LP of -ileum opp the attachment of mesentery
  26. Tonsils
    partially-encapsulated lymphatic organs; surrounded partially by CT capsule and partially by epithelium lining oral cavity
  27. What drains tonsils?
    efferent vessels into deep cervical lymph nodes
  28. General characteristics of tonsils
    • partially encapsulated
    • ICT (trabeculae)
    • infoldings of surface epithelium
    • Waldeyer's ring
    • participates in lymphopoiesis, Ab prod
  29. Palatine tonsils location
    lateral walls btw palatoglossal arch and palatopharyngeal arch
  30. palatine tonsils lymphatic tissue
    dense and nodular
  31. palatine tonsil CT
    hemi-capsule from which trabeculae partition the tonsil
  32. palatine tonsil surface covering
    stratified squamous epithelium which invaginates as mult crypts
  33. palatine tonsil assoc mucous glands
    drained by ducts bypassing tonsular crypts to empty directly onto surface
  34. lingual tonsil location
    root of tongue posterior to row of vallate papillae
  35. lingual tonsil lymphatic tissue
    dense and nodular
  36. lingual tonsil surface covering
    stratified squamous epi which invaginates into a SINGLE crypt (partially keratinized)
  37. lingual tonsil CT
  38. lingual tonsil assoc mucous glands
    drained by duct draining directly into single tonsillar crypt
  39. pharyngeal tonsil location
    posterior wall of nasopharynx
  40. pharyngeal tonsil lymphatic tissue
    dense and nodular
  41. pharyngeal tonsil surface covering
    pseudostratified columnar epithelium (aka respiratory) which makes mult FOLDS (NOT CRYPTS)
  42. pharyngeal tonsil CT
  43. pharyngeal tonsil assoc seromucous glands
    drained by ducts emptying into epithelial folds
  44. encapsulated lymphatic organs
    lymph nodes and spleen
  45. physical characteristics of LN
    • kidney bean shaped
    • COMPLETE CT capsule
    • cortex
    • medulla
    • lymph sinuses
    • afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels
  46. lymph sinuses
    channels for mvmt of lymph through node; NOT lined by continuous endothelium but are laced by recticular cells and fibers instead

    • 1. subcapsular
    • 2. peritrabecular
    • 3. medullary
  47. lymph node cortex
    contains lymph nodules w/ germinal centeres
  48. paracortical region/deep cortex
    w/in cortex of lymph nodes; mostly T lymphocytes, HEV, T-cell diapedesis
  49. HEV
    in deep cortex of cortex of lymph nodes; are stimulated postcapillary venules; found in thymus gland, spleen, and areas of chronic inflammation
  50. medulla of lymph node
    • no nodules
    • looser lymphatic tissue
    • medullary cords
    • medullary sinuses
  51. medullary cords
    in lymph node; mostly B lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages
  52. lymphatic vessels
    • afferent-drain into subcapsular sinus
    • efferent-exit lymph node through hilus
  53. blood vessels of lymph node
    enter at hilus and travel through trabeculae to parenchyma
  54. lymph node nerves
    vasomotor only; innervate sm muscle of vascular channels
  55. lymph node function
    • lymphopoiesis
    • Ab prod
    • filtration of lymph (phagocytosis of particles by macrophages lying along sinuses)
  56. Spleen
    fully encapsulated lymphoid organ; parenchyma is red and white pulp; efferent lymphatic vessels only
  57. blood supply of spleen
    splenic artery>capsular arteries>trabecular arteries>central arterioles>penicilliary arterioles>sinusoids>postcapillary venules>trabecular veins>splenic veins
  58. white pulp
    in spleen; lymphoid cells surrounding central arterioles; mostly T cells; reactive B cells form nodules w/ reactive centers; central arterioles become eccentrically placed
  59. red pulp
    in spleen; barrel-shapped splenic sinusoids surrounded by macrophages, reticular cells, lymphocytes (cords of Billroth....lymphocytes)
  60. splenic nerves
    vasomotor only; innervates sm muscle of vascular channels
  61. splenic function
    filters blood (phagocytic cells of sinusoids and splenic cords), hematopoiesis, phagocytosis of RBCs, Ab prod, blood reservoir
  62. thymus
    completely encapsulated lymphoid; cortex and medulla in juvenile thymus, no lymphatic nodules, efferent lymphatic vessels only
  63. epithelial reticular cells of thymus
    APCs; endodermal (3rd pouch), interconnected via desmosomes, support and isolate (blood-thymus barrier), synth and secrete thymopoietin and other paracrine factors to reg thymocyte dev
  64. structural syncytium
    aka desmosomes
  65. paracrine factors
    aka thymulin, alpha and beta thymosin
  66. Hassall's corpuscles
    in spleen; degenreating epithelial reticular cells, in adult
  67. thymic cortex
    comprised of epithelial reticular cells w/in which is dense lymphatic tissue, no lymphatic nodules
  68. thymic medulla
    thicker layer of epithelial reticular cells than thymic cortex, therefore reduced density of lymphatic tissue; contains Hassall's bodies
  69. thymic vessels
    blood vascular supply distributed via septae to capillaries in parenchyma; HEVs represent sites of margination and diapedesis of immature T cells
  70. thymic nerves
    vasomotor only; innervates sm muscle of vascular channels
  71. thymic function
    • lymphopoiesis
    • maturation of T lymphocytes
    • thymus involutes in adults although we still have T cells...somehow
  72. mononuclear phagocytic system cells
    histiocytes, Kupffer cells, alveolar macrophages, DCs in lymph nodules, osteoclasts, pleural and peritoneal macrophages, microglia, Langerhans cells
  73. Langerhans cells
    in epidermis
  74. Where do pleural and peritoneal macrophages live?
    serous cavities
  75. Where do osteoclasts live?
    bone surfaces
  76. What is another name for macrophages in lungs?
    dust cells
  77. Where do Kupffer cells live?
    liver sinusoids
  78. Where do histiocytes live?