Lecture I

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Lecture I
2011-09-14 21:25:18

Fall Lec 1
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  1. Antibiotic
    antimicrobial of natural origin
  2. Semisynthetics
    Antibiotics which have been chemically altered
  3. Synthetics
    completely man-made antimicrobial
  4. Spectrum
    • "breadth of activity" - how many bugs it works against
    • Wide spectrum: useful against many organisms
    • Narrow spectrum: useful againsg few organisms
  5. Normal Flora
    • organisms that colonize humans.
    • USUALLY don't cause disease (symbiotic)
    • Prevent overgrowth of pathogens
  6. Skin normal flora
    • Staph sp
    • Strept sp
    • Candidia sp
    • Corynebacteria
  7. Mouth normal flora
    • Strept sp
    • Bacteroides sp
  8. GI Tract normal flora
    • E. coli
    • Enterococcus
    • Candida
  9. Opportunistic infections
    Normal flora that colonize the body and cause infection during an immunocompromised situation
  10. Pathogen
    • Organisms with an increased ability to cause infection
    • Strep pneumoniae
    • Staph aureus
    • E. coli
  11. Virulence
    • Microbial factors that increase likelihood of infection
    • Adhesins, polysaccharide capsules, toxins, hyluronidases
    • High virulence: few organisms to cause infection
    • Low virulence: many organisms to cause infection
  12. hyluronidases
    enzymes that dissolve connective tissue
  13. polysaccharide capsules
    prevent phagocytosis
  14. Antimicrobial vs Antibiotic
    • Antimicrob: Broader classification, includes elements, anti-virals/anti-fungals included
    • Antibiotic: found in nature, same as antibacterial
  15. Bacteriostatic
    • inhibit bacterial growth
    • allows body's immune system to act
    • Bacteria are still there, just not replicating
    • Inhibition of protein synthesis
    • inhibition of metabolite action/synthesis
  16. Bacteriocidal
    • Results in bacterial death
    • Cell wall lysis
    • Altered membrane permeability
  17. Natural resistance
    native to an organisms
  18. Acquired Resistance
    • usually associated with antibiotic use
    • develops after exposure