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  1. Homeostasis
    • Relative state of health
    • dynamic state of equilibrium which is constantly being disrupted
  2. RDA
    Recommended daily allowances
  3. Easiest to show the differences between cause and effect...
    when there are deficentcies
  4. Overweight teens and kids are a higher risk of developing ______ later in life
    type 2 diabetes
  5. Over the past 100 years, expectancy has increased from ____yrs to nearly _____yrs. Double what it was in olden days
    • 45
    • 80
  6. Nutrition
    • The scientific knowledge that defines nutrient requirements for body maintenance, growth, activity, and reproduction
    • To nourish
    • A relatively new science, within the last 100yrs
  7. Dietetics
    • The health profession responsible for nutrtion to persons and groups in various conditions of health and disease
    • Aware of what people need
  8. Registered Dietitian (RD)
    The nutrition expert on the healthcare team
  9. Public Health Nutrtionist
    Oversees the care of high-risk groups in the community assesing the needs and developing intervention programs
  10. Nutrients
    • Specfic chemical compounds and elements in foods
    • cannot be made by the body and must be supplied in food/diet
  11. Macronutrients (made by living things)
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats
    • Proteins
  12. Micronutrients (can be made by living things but do not have to be)
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals (metals found in earth)
  13. Metabolism
    The sum of all chemical reactions that use nutrients
  14. All the energy that you use in your body comes from nutrients you EAT
  15. 3 functions of nutrients
    • Provide energy
    • Build and repair body tissue and strutures
    • Regulate all the metabolic processess that maintain homeostasis and support life
  16. Energy Source
    • 1. Carbs
    • 2. Fats
    • 3. Proteins
  17. Carbohydrates
    • Each carb yeild 4 kilocalories
  18. Glycogen
    • a storage form of carbs
    • used for quick energy
  20. Fat (lipids)
    • comes from animal and plant cources
    • Body's alternate and sotrage form of energy
    • Yields 9 kilocalories (2x carbs and protien)
  22. Protein
    • Most complicated molecule
    • Primary function is tissue building and repair (build everything)
    • Can be energy if needed
    • Yields 4 kilocalories (same as carbs)
    • Building blocks
  23. Vitamins and Minerals
    Regulate chemical reaction that happen in the body
  24. Minerals
    Serve as coenzyme factors in cell metabolism
  25. Vitamins
    Complex molecules needed in very minute amounts but they are essential in body structure and metabolism
  26. Kwashiorkor
    Disease of starvation of children
  27. Malnourished
    • Energy needs may be met, but micronutrients likely are lacking
    • Can be also be found among hospital patients and long-term care facility residents (DANGEROUS PLACES)
  28. Overnourished
    Excessive energy intake and low physical activity can result in unwanted weight gain and overnutrition
  29. Nutrition Policy Defined
    • All government laws and programs that pertain to or regulate food and nutrition
    • Food labeling and food safety (past 50-60yrs)
    • Food stamps
    • MyPyramid
  30. People develop ways of eating based on the following:
    • Ethinc background
    • Cultural or religious beliefs
    • Family Habits
    • Socioecnomic status
    • Health status
    • Geographic location
    • Person likes and dislikes
  31. The two forms of carb that occur natuarlly in plant foods
    • 1. Starches
    • 2. Sugars
  32. Photsynthesis
    • Plants tranform the sun's energy into carbohydrates and store them as starch and sugar
    • We are eating sunlight
  33. Glycongen
    Plants way of storing carb away
  34. ALL we eat comes from PLANTS orginally ---they get the energy through photosynthesis
  35. Carbohydrates are classified...
    according to the number of basic sugar (or saccharide) units that make up their structure
  36. Simple carbs
    • monosaccharides
    • disaccharides
  37. Complex carbs
    polysaccharides (starch)
  38. 3 important monosaccharides in human nutrition
    • 1. Glucose (found only in the mono form)
    • 2. Fructose
    • 3. Galactose
  39. Glucose
    • Moderately sweet sugar found in naturally in only a few foods
    • The common body fuel oxidized by cells to provide energy
  40. Hyperglycemia
    An elevated blood glucose level
  41. Hypoglycemia
    A blood glucose level below the normal range
  42. Frucose
    • Sweetest simle sugar
    • Fruits and honey
    • Absorbed less efficiently than glucose
  43. Starch
    • Most important energy-yielding ps
    • Large complex structures made of many coiled and branching chains of single glucose units and yields ONLY GLUCOSE on complete digestion
    • Storage form in plants
    • A bunch of glucose stuck together
  44. Glycogen
    • Storage form of carbs in animals
    • Made in liver cells and stored in relatively small amounts in the liver and muscles
  45. Energy
    • Primary function of starches and sugars in cells
    • Brain cells depend on glucose
  46. Carbs-energy
    • Carbs are #1 thing we get energy from
    • "Fast over night"
    • Carbs keep us going
    • Amount of carbs stored in body is small but important
  47. Glycogen Reserves
    Protect cells, especially brain cells, from depressed metabolic function and injury and support urgent muscle responses and needed
  48. Carbs allow cell to cell communication
    They are used in Nucleic acids and cell membrane components
    Nucleic Acids are the building blocks of DNA
  49. Fibers
    • Ingested--yes
    • Digested--no
    • Insoluble fibers--increase water content in bowel, may help prevent cancer
    • Soluble fibers-- binds cholesterol in GI and then lets it flow out
  50. Benefits of Fiber
    • Increase fecal mass
    • Binding of bile acids and cholesterol
    • Postive effect on colonic microflora (bacteria)
  51. Lipids
    • Fatty or oily that are not soluble in water
    • Solids at room temperature
  52. Importance of Lipids
    • Energy
    • Source of material for making importnat stuff in the body
    • Carry lipid-soluble vitamins into and around the body
    • Makes fat cells and fat tissues to insulate our bodies
  53. What are lipids made up of?
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
  54. Fatty Acids
    • Basic building blocks of lipids
    • Good source is vegetable oil
  55. The two essential fatty acids
    • 1. Linoleic acid
    • 2. alpha- Linoleic acid
  56. Triglycerides
    • are storage unit form for fatty acids
    • make fat cells
  57. Glycerol
    • Backbone of trigylceride molecule
    • Contains 3 fatty acids
  58. Steroids
    Not lipids but behave like them solubility
  59. Cholesterol
    • Steroid
    • Only found in animal projects
    • Made in body so dietary sources not essential
    • LDL-low density lipoprotein (has trouble moving blood)
  60. Lipid uses...
    • helps absorb vitamins A D E K (dont like water, they are fat soluble vitamins)
    • Lipids are metabolized to make energy (9 kilocal)
    • Insulation and padding
    • Appetite control
  61. Phosopholipids
    • Consist of glycerol backbone with 2 fatty acids and third is substitued by phosphate group.
    • It makes them AMPHIPATHIC-key to role in making up membrane
    • Fat build cell membrane and keeps it together
    • Used as starting point in production of lots of intracellular signaling molecules
  62. Protein
    • Made up of chains of AMINO ACIDS held together by PEPTIDE BONDS
    • Real goal is to build and rebuild
  63. Proteins are made up of amino acids
    • Some amino acids must be obtained from diet
    • Primary structure of protein is strand of amino acids which is very hard to break
  64. Secondary structure
    Secondary structure of proteins refers to how proteins from HELICES or SHEETS
  65. Tertiary structure (3rd structure)
    • Refers to their folding, which is heavily dependent on intr-protein bonding -certain regions of proteins are attracted to other regions in the same protein molecule
    • Hemoglobin Cell
  66. Denaturation
    When tertiary structure is damaged by heat temperature or acid
  67. Protein function
    • Do all the work in the cells
    • structural support
    • enzymes, pumps
    • intr-and extracellular signaling
    • defense-immunoglobulins, immune system, antibodies
    • receptors, channels
    • contractile machinary
    • control of genetic functions
  68. TO MAKE TISSUE, ONE HAS TO EAT PROTEIN! Carbs will not suffice
  69. Eating animal and plant tissues will provide all essential amino acids
    but too much protein is a bad thing
  70. Ingestion
    Physically taking the food in
  71. Digestion
    Breaking down big and small molecules
  72. Absorbsion
    Getting the food into the blood stream
  73. The Gastrointestinal System (GI) is a long tube that runs through out the whole body
    Accessory organs are liver, pancreas, and gall bladder
  74. GI does four essential things
    • 1. Recieves food
    • 2. Digest food
    • 3. Absorbs food
    • 4. Eliminate waste
  75. Bilirubin
    The red blood cells breakdown
  76. Digestion involves two types
    • 1. Mechanical-break down food into smaller peices
    • 2. Chemical-enzymes break down food into usuable substances
  77. Peristalsis
    • Slow contractions of the stomach muscles
    • Mashes food up
  78. Walls of the GI included
    • 1. Nerves
    • 2. Muscle
    • 3. Glands
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