Biology Chapter 1

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Biology Chapter 1
2011-09-15 09:20:39
Freshman Biology

Themes of Biology
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  1. Biology is.......
    Posing questions about the world and getting scienc-y answers- The Scientific Study of life
  2. Evolution is....
    A process of change in the life forms on earth, making them better adapted to their enironment
  3. Emergent Properties.....
    novel properties that are not present in a previous biological system, more complex
  4. Reductionism
    reducing complex systems to simpler components that are easier to study
  5. Systems Biology
    Attempting to model the behavior of entire systems by studying smaller parts- helps predict outcome's
  6. Bio System:: THE BIOSPHERE
    all life on earth...
  7. Bio System:: ECOSYSTEMS
    grasslands, deserts, oceans, or forests- all living things in a particular area with similar environments
  8. Bio Systems:: COMMUNITIES
    all the organisms in an ecosystem
  9. Bio System:: POPULATIONS
    all the indiviguals of a species living in one community
  10. Bio System:: ORGANISMS
    indivigual living things
    the systems of organs/organelles that keep a plant or animsl alive
  12. Bio Systems:: TISSUES
    a group of cells working together to preform a certain task
  13. Bio Systems:: CELLS
    life's fundamental unit-
  14. Bio Systems:: ORGANELLES
    the functional components of cells
  15. Bio Systems:: MOLECULES
    a chemical structure represented by 2+ small chemical units
  16. Form fits Function
    The fact that anatomy has evolved into what it is for a specific reason
  17. Eukaryotic Cell
    the cells that form most living matter including plants and animals -subdivided by internal membranes
  18. Prokaryotic Cell
    small cells that are simpler than eukaryotic and lacks many of the organelles- "first" cell
  19. DNA in a cell
    chromasomes carry genetic material, establish cells identity (protiens),
  20. Neucleotides
    chemical building blocks of DNA- arranges in double helix- A, T, C, G
  21. Enzymes
    catalyze (speed up) specific chemical reactions
  22. Gene Expression
    when the info in a gene directs production of a cellular product
  23. genome
    a "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits- has two similar sets of chromasomes
  24. Bioinformatics
    the use of computers to store, organise, and analyze huge volumes of data
  25. Negative Feedback
    • most common form of regulation in the body- getting closer to the end product slows the formation of the product
    • ex: your water bottle is getting full (negative feedback), so you slow or stop the water filling it
  26. Positive Feedback
    • getting closer to the end product speeds up the production
    • ex: giving positive re-enforcement (positive feedback) gets results faster
  27. Domains of life are.....
    • Bacteria- most diverse and widespread
    • Archaea- living in earth's extreme environments
    • Eukarya- organisms with eukaryotic cells (forming living matter)
  28. Kingdoms of life are......
    • Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, and Protist
    • distinguished by their models of nutrition
  29. Protists
    single celled eukaryotes- most neumorous and diverse "living thing"
  30. Darwin's theory of evolution was.....
    • -contemporary species arose from a sucession of ancestors
    • - decent with modification- natural selection
  31. Science
    a way of knowing- an aproach to understanding the natural world, developed out of our curiosity about everything
  32. Inqury
    • seearch for information and explanation often focusing on specific questions
    • processes include; observations, forming logical hypotheses and testing them
  33. Qualitative Data
    record descriptions rather than neumerical data- describing or drawing
  34. Quanitative Data
    neumerical data and measurments
  35. Inductive Reasoning
    collecting and analyzing specific observations and deriving general statements from them
  36. Deductive Reasoning
    evolves from the hypothesis (usualy)- from the general premise of the hypothesis and logic brings us to a specific answer
  37. Scientific Theory
    a general hypothesis that is broad and supported by broad evidence, many hypothesis can be spun off it,
  38. Matter
    anything that takes up space
  39. Element
    sustance that cannot be broken down into other substences
  40. Compopund
    consisting of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio- characteristics different than the indivigual elements
  41. Essential Elements
    things that an organism needs to live healthfuly and to reproduce- oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen ect.
  42. Trace Elements
    elements only needed in minute quantities
  43. Atomic Number
    number of protons
  44. Mass Number
    protons + neutrons
  45. Atomic Mass
    approximation of the total mass in an atom
  46. Isotopes
    an atom with a larger neucleus because it has more neutrons
  47. Radioactive Isotope
    the neucleus spontaniously decays, giving off lots of particles and energy- leads to different number of protons, different element